Cybernetics in the 3rd Millennium (C3M) -- Volume 3 Number 10, Nov. 2004
Alan B. Scrivener --- www.well.com/~abs --- mailto:email@example.com
Bateson and Me
(Part One of Three)
"[me:] Where does information come from?
[Bateson:] From the sky, like fall-out."
-- passing notes with Gregory Bateson
at Kresge College, 1974
Last weekend there was a conference on the legacy of Gregory Bateson,
held at the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, CA.
( www.batesonconference.org )
I was unable to attend, so I am writing this month's e-Zine about
my remembrances of being his student. I have, through organizer
Gordon Feller, invited the attendees to subscribe to C3M and
especially to receive this issue.
* * * * * * * *
"What is a number that a man may know it,
and a man that he may know a number?"
-- Warren McCulloch, 1961
The Ninth Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture
reprinted in "Embodiments of Mind" (1965)
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0262631148/hip-20 )
Gregory Bateson was born in England in 1904. His father was William
Bateson, who coined the word "genetics." He was named for Gregor
Mendel, who effectively discovered genes but did not name them.
Coming from a scientific family he was encouraged to enter a science,
and he at first chose anthropology. He was educated at Cambridge.
He first achieved a sort of "fame" by having a famous wife, fellow
anthropologist Margaret Mead, with whom he had a daughter, Mary
Catherine Bateson. But his career arc took him far afield of
anthropology, through the founding of cybernetics, into psychiatry
(where he came up with the "double bind" theory of schizophrenia),
then into zoology, ethology, genetics, and finally epistemology and
philosophy. Bateson was charting a course as an inter-disciplinarian.
The Macy Foundation's conference on "feedback" at which cybernetics
was launched tried to achieve an interdisciplinary approach by
inviting many different specialists. In my "Curriculum for
Cybernetics and Systems Theory" in the section on "Where Cybernetics
and Systems Theory Came From" I describe how this happened:
( www.well.com/~abs/curriculum.html#From )
By the late 1940's, thanks mostly to the growth of
electronics, a lot of people were running around with
the idea that "feedback" was somehow important. One of
them was Warren McCulloch, a pioneer brain researcher
who first proposed the mathematical modeling of neurons.
He was approached by the Josiah Macy Foundation to chair a
conference on the nervous system. The Macy Foundation ... funded
conferences on medicine; they had done the heart,
lungs, skin, etc. but never the brain or nerves.
But McCulloch was determined to make these meetings
more than a typical medical conference. He invited
physiologists, electronics specialists, mathematicians,
physicists, even social scientists -- including
husband and wife anthropologists Gregory Bateson and
Margaret Mead. The participants met for a few days
every six months over a period of several years.
At first McCulloch only let the "neuro" people talk;
he wanted everyone to understand the great questions
facing them before they started looking for answers.
But eventually a cautious collaboration developed,
as the participants probed their intuition of what
was missing from their knowledge of minds.
In 1948 one of the attendees, mathematician Norbert
Wiener, published a book in which he purported to
name the new field of inquiry they were investigating:
Cybernetics was the name of the field and the book.
This move received mixed reviews from the other
participants in the conference. However, many of
the attendees did return to their disciplines and
begin using the new set of tools provided by the
conference, and by Wiener (including two who I had
the good fortune to meet and study under: Gregory
Bateson and Heinz von Foerster).
But Bateson achieved his own interdisciplinary approach by
going from field to field solving deep systemic problems.
During this rich journey he also transitioned to living
in the USA, become an American citizen, and drifted from New York to
California to Hawaii and then back to California. It seemed
the zoos were interested in only funding animal behavior studies,
and the veteran's hospitals in funding mental illness studies,
and so on. He kept looking for a place that would let him study
what he ended up calling "the pattern which connects." He landed
at the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) at the age
of sixty-nine, too old to be a professor and so hired as a "senior
lecturer" with some miscellaneous academic funds at Kresge College.
Several brief biographies of him appear on the web,
( www.interculturalstudies.org/IIS/Bateson/biography.html )
( www2.gwu.edu/~asc/biographies/Bateson/bio.html )
( www.dragonflymedia.com/cg/cg3111/gregorybateson3111.html )
and there is also an uninspired book-length biography, "Gregory
Bateson: Legacy of a Scientist" (1982) by David Lipset,
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0807046639/hip-20 )
which devotes only a handful of pages to his Kresge years.
* * * * * * * *
"Evolution and cybernetics are going to come
together. This is the edge of knowledge right now,
and it's right at the heart of education, and the
schools don't know it."
-- "The Last Whole Earth Catalog," 1971
p. 117, from an article on "Alloy," a gathering
of 150 dome builders, commune dwellers and "hope
fiends" near La Luz, New Mexico, March 1969
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0394704592/hip-20 )
I was born in the USA in 1953, the son of an amateur auto mechanic who
became a jet mechanic and later and airline pilot, and a mother who
studied psychology and ended up teaching parenting skills. My ancestors
earned an English coat of arms which included a hand holding a quill pen,
for the name SCRIVENER, meaning "scribe." I grew up up in the suburbs
of San Diego, in the middle of the middle class and the "baby boom."
As a "gifted" student in a conservative school system, I was frustrated
by the lack of creative challenges in my education. I didn't like the
emphasis on specialized fields of study. Inspired by the likes of
Leonardo da Vinci, I wanted to become a "Renaissance Man," an academic
"generalist." I also was "turned off" by the extreme emphasis on
competition, and measuring individual achievement. The only place
teamwork was encouraged was in sports. I thought that since we were
all going to have to go out into the world and cooperate to solve the
major problems facing society (war, crime, pollution, poverty, etc.),
we should be learning cooperative strategies in school.
One of the highlights of my teenage years was my discovery of the
"Whole Earth Catalog." I first read of it in -- of all things --
"Parade" magazine (the newspaper Sunday supplement). My first exposure
to it seemed like a bonanza -- I learned about the generalist Bucky
Fuller, the science of cybernetics, and editor Stewart Brand's obsession
with "understanding whole systems." It became my curriculum for
becoming a Renaissance Man.
Being middle class meant knowing the importance of a liberal
arts education. The question was never "if" but "where" I would
go to college. I researched experimental schools, and chose the
University of California's newest campus, Santa Cruz, for its
redwood forest, "living learning environment" and Pass/Fail grades
(later Pass/No Record, i.e., if you didn't pass they tore up the
paperwork), and I chose Kresge College for its theme "man and his
environment" (later changed to "humans and their environment"
about the time the college created one of the first Women's Studies
majors in America).
I began by majoring in math, the tool of all sciences (I was told)
but began looking around for a way to study "whole systems."
there was a "computer science" department, later changed to
"information and computer science" and then to just "information
science." A faculty member explained to me that it wasn't
"chemistry and test tube science." From them I took a class
called "theory of information and communication." It wasn't
what I was expecting. Another Kresge student, Carter de Paul,
took the same class. "Great name, huh?" he said of it. I
learned a lot about negative entropy, and the work of Bell Labs
engineer Claude Shannon. (Scroll down to Figure 5 in the link below.)
( home.mira.net/~reynella/debate/shannon.htm )
My sequence of math major courses took me through calculus to
linear algebra, which I didn't get at all, and thought was
totally detached from reality. I dropped the class and switched
majors to physics. (Little did I know that they were teaching me
Ordinary Differential Equations, ODEs, the basic language of
general systems theory! At the time it was a taboo in math
education to mention what the tools were good for.)
* * * * * * * *
"Calculus of intention was a concept developed over many
years by the cybernetic wizard Warren McCulloch."
-- Paul Ryan, 1971
"Cybernetic, Guerrilla Warfare"
in "Radical Software" v. 1 n. 3
( www.radicalsoftware.org/e/volume1nr3.html )
The first time I came across the name Gregory Bateson was in a
newspaper-sized newsprint periodical about community video and
using the new Sony Portapak to effect social change, called
( www.radicalsoftware.org )
I acquired volume 1 number 3, dated April 1971, some time in 1973 or 74.
(I think I may have bought it during a pilgrimage to the Whole Earth
Truck Store in Menlo Park, where the Whole Earth Catalog was published.)
( lists.squeakfoundation.org/pipermail/squeak-dev/2000-November/019510.html )
One of the things I noticed right off was the "Xerox mark," a
circle with an X inside that meant "please copy," by analogy to
the copyright symbol.
( www.well.com/user/abs/Cyb/4.669211660910299067185320382047/RadSW.jpg )
It reminded me at the time of "copyleft," and reminds me today of the
Gnu Public License (GPL).
( www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html )
But there was an exception. There was one article that had a
normal copyright, called "Restructuring the Ecology of a Great
City." A note said the author "wrote us to say that while
he had no objection to his piece running under a xerox mark,
that would ironically leave him open to being ripped-off by
copyright laws." I thought to myself, "wow, what a paranoid."
But I read the article, to see what all the freakin' fuss was
over. The article had some interesting ideas:
* a city needing a "flexibility budget"
* the metaphor of a phone exchange with all circuits busy,
on the threshold of "jamming" representing running out
* the Zen aphorism "To become accustomed to anything is a
terrible thing" as a warning against inflexibility
Years later I realized this was the first article I ever read
by Gregory Bateson.
In the fall of 1973 Gregory Bateson came to Kresge. There was
a bit of coverage in the school press. It barely caused a
blip in my radar. Some supposed deep-thinker was moving into
one of the three on-campus faculty apartments. Browsing the
campus "Bay Tree Bookstore" one day, I happened upon his book,
"Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology,
Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology" (1972).
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226039056/hip-20 )
I flipped through it half-heartedly. "It looks like b---s--- to
me," I remember thinking. I believe I was a bit desensitized by the
vast quantity of real b---s--- floating around at the time. For
example, that same issue of "Radical Software" that had the
Bateson article also had an article called "Media Ecology" by
Raymond Arlo, which included this:
DEFINITIONS/POINTS OF VIEW/SYSTEMS/MEDIA/are like METAPHORS
Line vs. Grid
PRINT vs. PLUG
Consecutive vs. Simultaneous
Individual vs. Collection
Segregated vs. Integrated
Course vs. Attitude
Sounds good, but how can you tell if it means something? Are the
items on the left "old school" and to be shunned, while those on
the right are "hip new metaphors" ready to enlighten us?
The first real solid clue I had that Bateson had something
important to say was an exchange in the Kresge College
newsletter, which I was editing at the time. I called it
"The Kresge Klein." (The previous year the self-described
"gonzo journalists" who edited it called it the "Kresge Clone"
for reasons that were never clear. I called it the "Klein"
to be "an inside joke with no inside," after the Klein bottle
with no inside.) Unfortunately I only have the 3rd and 4th
letters in the sequence, but I recall the the 1st letter was
a general call for input on the never-ending process of
reforming the college curriculum to make it more "relevant,"
and the 2nd was a short response from Bateson saying we
should seek to teach students to identify the "non trivial"
as well as Leonard da Vinci could. The above-mentioned
information theory student wanted more detail. He wrote:
an open letter to gregory bateson c/o the KLEIN
How to recognize the Non Trivial as the Kresge College
Curriculum? If YOU are serious, say more... (It sounds too
interesting, too practical, too relevant to an involving
education, to be possible -- if i begin to understand what
you might be talking about...) What are you talking about?
OK, what DID leonardo know that we've never been told ? ? ?
carter de paul
To which Bateson replied:
Dear Klein, 4 February 1974
Carter de Paul says I should explain -- almost challenges me.
What did Leonardo know that Kresge students are not told - ?
How did it happen that his Notebooks are full of entries
dealing with, e.g., waves, the circulation of blood, the nature
of visual images, etc. -- matters which are today the cornerstones
of science? How did he know that these particular matters were
And what sort of curriculum (detestable word) might endow
a few Kresge people with a similar ability to have hunches
identifying the non-trivial? That would indeed be an education
So, let's take a 14th-century look at the above examples.
1. WAVES are sort of humps which move on the surface
of water. But what moves? The substance, the water to
which the attribute "humpiness" is attached, stays in its
place. Only the form of the wave moves. "It" (to what
does this pronoun refer?) is certainly just like "you"
and "me" -- eating up and incorporating new substance
from moment to moment, and excreting the old from moment
to moment. To what then do these pronouns, "you" and "me",
refer? To wandering shapes?
2. CIRCULATION OF BLOOD. Leonardo incidentally had
trouble with this one. He nicked a blood vessel in his
dissection of the lung and believed that the blood has
direct contact with the air in the lung. But he was
still right: logistics is a non-trivial component of
life. It integrates.
3. VISUAL IMAGES. That's a tough one. Leonardo
thought the air between you and me was full of images and
that my eye caught images of you -- like a sort of
butterfly net, and your eyes like butterfly nets caught
images of me. But he also knew that light was somehow
the substance of which images were made and he thought
that the eye puts out sort of tendrils of light to feel
what is around us. Of course any Kresge student could
tell Leonardo was wrong, but -- just what are visual
images? Not on the retina, for those you do not see.
But in the brain?
Tell me where is Fancy bred
Or in the heart or in the head
How begot? How nourished?
It is engendered in the eyes,
With gazing fed. And Fancy dies
In the cradle where it lies.
Let us all ring Fancy's knell.
I'll begin it -- ding, dong, bell.
Shakespeare, too, could spot a non-trivial problem when he
saw one. With a metaphor strong enough to blow your mind he
connects visual image formation with reproduction. It is
begot. It is a baby. And how is it that my right arm is
an image of my left?
This argument leads to a curriculum or "major" in
experimental philosophy or empirical epistemology.
Very difficult to teach because its subject matter
would be everything and its connectedness quite intangible.
When viewed in the light of that connectedness, everything
becomes non-trivial. Some things illustrate connectedness
more vividly, but only the connectedness matters.
"An ultimate simplicity costing not less than everything."
I remember thinking this was some pretty good stuff.
Living on campus (around a corner and two doors down from me),
Gregory and his wife Lois looked for excuses to interact with students.
They began having weekly "rap sessions" in their apartment. At first
I stayed away. But then I decided to audition for a part in the
play "The Real Inspector Hound" (1970) by Tom Stoppard.
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0571047270/hip-20 )
I was up for ther part of Inspector Hound (but not, it turns out,
the REAL Inspector Hound) in a classic British drawing room
murder mystery with some "meta" twists. I'd need to do a British
accent. Bateson was Cambridge-educated and had just the sound I
needed. I went to a rap session to listen to his accent.
I realized later that this wasn't just a "hang out" event
or a "meet and greet" session; he was, in a low-key way,
recruiting students. The discussion turned to myths. Many
of us were taking Michael Kahn's "Psych 5 - Humanistic Psychology"
class, and had read Joseph Campbell's "The Hero With a Thousand
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691017840/hip-20 )
which talked about the universal structure of all world myths, what
he called the "monomyth." I piped up about how "the Wizard of Oz"
was an American version of the story, with Dorothy as the Hero. I
had been highly influenced growing up by the 1939 Judy Garland movie,
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/B00000JS62/hip-20 )
based on "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" (1900) by L. Frank Baum.
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0060293233/hip-20 )
Bateson pointed out that only in the American version of the myth
was the wizard a FAKE! That's what made it uniquely American!
And he laughed.
I enjoyed it, but not enough to go back. I dunno, maybe I was
too proud. I felt like I already had too many guru-like
professors to choose from at UCSC (Michael Kahn, John Grinder,
William Everson) and wasn't eager to add one more to the list.
A month or two later school ended, concluding the spring quarter 1974.
I got the part of Inspector Hound (not the real...) and signed up
for summer school classes, one in writing and a lit. class on
"the demonic hero." Before summer school began I took a trip
back to my home town of San Diego to visit family and friends.
Wayne and Eric, two of my friends from high school, were living
in a house Wayne'd bought that they called "Wayne's Oasis." They
had a small party that weekend and I was hanging out. "Have you seen
this?" Wayne asked, and handed me a new book by Stewart Brand, editor
of the "Whole Earth Catalog," called "II Cybernetic Frontiers" (1974).
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0394492838/hip-20 )
The book, on the small side, consisted of two articles Brand had
written recently: "SPACEWAR -- Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death
Among the Computer Bums" (1972, Rolling Stone magazine)
( www.wheels.org/spacewar/stone/rolling_stone.html )
and "Both Sides of the Necessary Paradox (Conversations With Gregory
Bateson)" (1973, Harper's Weekly).
( www.thesa.com/th/th-106-161-169-th-7-182-22.htm )
I was astonished. I sat down in Wayne's living room and read the
whole book straight through on the spot, while my friends played
with primitive computers (I think there was a Radio Shack TRS-80
there as well as an IMSAI with "dazzler" video card). Wayne had
been mostly interested in the "Spacewar" article, partly because
he'd played a similar game at Grossmont College in the electronics
lab there. But here in the "Paradox" my most credible reporter
on all things cybernetic, Stewart Brand, was crowning Bateson
king of whole systems, and he'd been right under my nose for
nine months! (Literally -- I'd been living in a loft in apartment
187 that looked down on his faculty office window.)
One of the ideas discussed in the article was "deutero-learning"
or "learning II," learning to learn. (When people talking about
the "learning curve" -- and usually they have no idea what they're
talking about -- they are referring to a sort of "urban legend"
derivation of Bateson's ideas of learning II.) An example of
this was given in a story of a dolphin who was -- with some
difficulty -- trained to do something "new" on cue. (This story
appears on-line, paraphrased as "The Parable of the Porpoise" at
the topperformancecoaching.com web site.)
( www.topperformancecoaching.com/cgi-bin/datacgi/database.cgi?file=tpc&report=rptShowArticle&ID=0037 )
About 3 AM I finished reading the book on Wayne's couch and was
determined to return to Kresge and study under this great cyberneticist.
But when I go back, and told Bateson of my plan, he proposed that
I start out by reading the complete works of Dickens, suggested
that maybe I was ready for a "psychotic break," gave me a copy of
of a book he'd edited for me to read, "Percival's Narrative: A
Patient's Account of His Psychosis 1830-1832" (1961),
( s1.amazon.com/exec/varzea/ts/exchange-glance/Y01Y3627200Y7265201/qid%3D1101858936/104-8512881-9480713 )
and took off to spend the summer living with some Indians.
* * * * * * * *
"A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject.
This conversation should be such that not only do the participants
discuss the problem but the structure of the conversation as a
whole is also relevant to the same subject."
-- "Steps to an Ecology of Mind," Part I, Page 1
I never did read the Dickens or "Percival's Narrative," which
Bateson insisted was important because the schizophrenia patient
author was articulate and too early historically to be corrupted
by Freud's ideas. And I wasn't very interested in having a
"psychotic break," because I knew how society ostracizes people
perceived as having mental illness. I still remembered the Thomas
Eagleton scandal during the 1972 George McGovern presidential
But what I did do was start hanging around his office, where his
secretary, Judith Van Slooten, was working for the summer. I
mentioned how my student apartment had looked into his faculty
office. Well, during the summer, the college moved me to a
different apartment, and moved Bateson into a different office,
and I STILL looked into his office, across a small courtyard
from my living room. I could see if Judith was in. When I
played my Beach Boys tape she asked me to stick the speakers
in the window. She was a beautiful blonde surfer chick who
had reached middle age. When I saw her in the window I would
ask if I could come over, and she would tell me whether she
was too busy.
Judith became the person I could talk to about Bateson's ideas.
She wasn't assigned to be his secretary out of a pool -- she worked
for him, not the college -- and she told me that after she'd read
some of his work she showed up and announced she was becoming his
secretary. She bragged that Gregory had been working on a
collection of essays he called "Steps Towards an Ecology of Mind,"
and she'd convinced him to change "Towards" to be "To," since she
said he'd gotten there. She also wrote the uncredited blurb on the
first page of the book, the one that begins:
"Here is the book which develops a new way of thinking..."
And she gave me a copy of "Steps..." to read. I started at the
beginning. The first section, his father/daughter metalogues,
were delightful -- kind of like eating dessert first. But then
I got into the section on "Form and Pattern in Anthropology"
and started reading about "schizmogenesis" and bogged down.
(This early writing was from a time when Bateson did not yet
know the language of cybernetics, positive and negative feedback,
etc., and so was struggling to express new ideas.)
I spent the bulk of the summer at rehearsals for the play, and
hanging out afterwards until the wee hours at The Crepe Place
with the other actors, listening to Stevie Wonder's "Hotter
Than July" and smoking Sherman cigarettes, which one of the
actors used as props.
( www.metroactive.com/papers/cruz/12.12.96/dining-9650.html )
I slept in a lot, missing classes, and had trouble doing the
assigned reading (which included "Paradise Lost" and "Moby Dick")
for the "demonic hero" class. I did manage to read an optional
book, though, "Frankenstein" (1818) by Mary Shelley.
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0553212478/hip-20 )
When "The Real Inspector Hound" began performances, my parents
flew up from San Diego to see me in it, and stayed in my student
apartment. I believe Nixon had just resigned, or was about to.
All America was on edge about that. I was also on edge because
I needed to tell my parents that I was flunking the summer school
classes they'd paid for me to take. I couldn't sleep. I knew they
were sleeping in my room while I camped out on my living room floor,
and I while I paced around the living room freaking out I began to
think I understood why Frankenstein's monster wanted to destroy his
creator. I felt guilt at this train of thought. Was I approaching
that "psychotic break" Bateson had prescribed? I was beginning to
understand that this was a code phrase he used for "Learning III,"
a major paradigm shift in learning how to learn how to learn.
A week later my parents were back in southern California, camping
near a town called Idylwild in the San Jacinto Mountains, and I
drove up into the mountains to join them. I was sitting and
reading John Lilly's "The Center of the Cyclone" (1972),
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0517556146/hip-20 )
and he talked about astral travel. Bateson had taught me that
all perception was hallucination, and hopefully some of it was
BASED ON reality. I thought that maybe so-called astral travel
or "out of body" experiences were just an alternate way to
perceive the data in the mind, and nobody actually "went"
anywhere. As I sat pondering this possibility among the
pine trees, I rose up out of my body about 100 feet and looked
down at myself in the woods. Woah! As soon as I realized
what I was doing, I snapped back down into my body. Enough
of that! I wasn't going to have no psychotic break, no-siree!
I told my parents I had to leave, and drove down the mountain.
Halfway down I stopped and stood on a boulder, and looked
at a strange glowing orange cloud hovering over the mountain top.
I thought I was cracking up. This had to be a hallucination.
Hoo boy. I continued driving down onto the flats, and the I
happened to turn on the radio and hear about the forest fire
engulfing Idylwild and environs.
When I returned to San Diego I went over to my oldest sister's
house and we tried to get a hold a sheriff or emergency services
person who could tell us if our parents were OK. Sitting around
talking about childhood memories and stories with her, I realized
that I REALLY didn't want them to die, and I regretting the idle
train of thought from a week earlier. (The next morning they
showed up, having been evacuated just ahead of the encroaching fire.)
Well that was as close as I got that summer to a "psychotic
break." Of course the glowing orange cloud WASN'T a hallucination,
but when I'd thought it was, a funny shift was going on in my
brain. I felt ready to receive new ideas about ideas.
In the fall of 1974, Stewart Brand, who'd shut down the "Whole Earth
Catalog" in 1972, came out with its sequel, "The Whole Earth Epilog."
( www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140039503/hip-20 )
On the first page of the "Whole Systems" section at the beginning,
in what used to be the Bucky Fuller spot, was a page devoted to the
ideas of Gregory Bateson. Brand wrote:
Through Gregory I became convinced that much more of whole
systems could be understood than I thought -- that mysticism,
mood, ignorance, and paradox could be rigorous, for instance,
and that the most potent tool for grasping these essences --
these influence nets -- is cybernetics.
Bateson is responsible for a number of formal discoveries,
most notably the "Double Bind" theory of schizophrenia.
As an anthropologist he did pioneer work in New Guinea and
(with Margaret Mead) in Bali. He participated in the Macy
Foundation meetings that founded the science of cybernetics,
but kept a healthy distance from computers. He wandered
thornily in and out of various disciplines -- biology,
ethnology, linguistics, epistemology, psychotherapy -- and
left each of them altered with his passage.
In recommending this book, I've learned to suggest that it
be read backwards. Read the recent broad analyses of mind
and ecology at the end of the book and then work back to
see where the premises come from.
( www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GER/is_2000_Summer/ai_63500795 )
Also the college moved me back into apartment 187, and Bateson back
into his previous office, so I once again looked right into his window.
And, finally, I began studying under him, taking his survey course
"Ecology of Mind" in the Kresge auditorium, which we called the "Town
Hall" (or sometimes "Clown Hall").
TO BE CONTINUED...
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Copyright 2004 by Alan B. Scrivener