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[The following text (Book 8:105) is one of very few ancient documents, perhaps the only one of its time, that seems to contrast eunuch-ness with testicled-ness, in other words, to define a eunuch as lacking testicles. I was very discouraged for a long time when I came across it, that is, until I found the texts in the Digest that proved that as late as the 2nd century CE eunuchs could be and perhaps usually were anatomically whole. Even here Herodotos uses the verb "to cut" for castration, rather than "to eunuchize", which is found in the Gospel of Matthew; perhaps "to eunuchize" had not yet been invented as a term in Herodotos' time when the commercial manufacture of eunuchs was maybe still a novel practice. F.M.]

Book VIII, 104-106
[Translated by A.D. Godley, in Herodotus, vol. 4, Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1969, pp. 103-107)

104. With these sons he [Xerxes] sent Hermotimus as guardian; most honoured by Xerxes of all his eunuchs. The people of Pedasa dwell above Halicarnassus. This happens among these people: when aught untoward is about to befall within a certain time all those that dwell about their city, the priestess of Athene then grows a great beard. This had already happened to them twice.

105. Hermotimus, who came from this place Pedasa, had achieved a fuller vengeance for wrong done to him than had any man within my knowledge. Being taken captive by enemies and exposed for sale, he was bought by one Panionius of Chios, a man that had set himself to earn a livelihood out of most wicked practices; he would procure beautiful boys and castrate and take them to Sardis and Ephesus, where he sold them for a great price; for the foreigners value eunuchs more than perfect [enorchiôn, literally "testicled"] men, by reason of the full trust that they have in them. Now among the many whom Panionius had castrated in the way of trade was Hermotimus, who was not in all things unfortunate; for he was brought from Sardis among other gifts to the king, and as time went on he stood higher in Xerxes' favour than any other eunuch.

106. Now while the king was at Sardis and there preparing to lead his Persian armament against Athens, Hermotimus came for some business that he had in hand down to the part of Mysia which is inhabited by Chians and called Atarneus, and there he found Panionius. Perceiving who he was, he held long and friendly converse with him; "it is to you," he said, "that I owe all this prosperity of mine; now if you will bring your household and dwell here, I will make you prosperous in return," - promising this and that; Panionius accepted his offer gladly, and brought his children and his wife. But Hermotimus, having got the man and all his household in his power, said to him: "Tell me, you that have made a livelihood out of the wickedest trade on earth! what harm had I or any of my forefathers done to you, to you or yours, that you made me to be no man, but a thing of nought? ay, you thought that the gods would have no knowledge of your devices of old; but their just law has brought you for your wicked deeds into my hands, and now you shall be well content with the fulness of that justice which I will execute upon you." With these words of reproach, he brought Panionius' sons before him and compelled him. to castrate all four of them, his own children; this Panionius was compelled to do; which done, the sons were compelled to castrate their father in turn. Thus was Panionius overtaken by vengeance and by Hermotimus.