Judy Malloy, Editor

An Authoring Software Digital Humanities Resource

Social networking environments, where artists and writers come together in the discussion, creation, and sharing of art and literature, encompass conferencing systems, email, Twitter and Second Life, among many others. Ideally, on software-mediated social media platforms there is an energy that reflects and catalyzes the artmaking process, fostering a creative bonding -- not only for writers and artists working in new media art and literature but also for contemporary culture as a whole, including artists in the fields of music, dance, and theater, among many others.

Social Media Community, an Authoring Software resource in progress, looks at social media platforms in terms of their historical and contemporary roles in the creation of cultural community on the Internet. The Current Focus is pre-World Wide Web social media, but the resource will eventually be expanded.


__Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
__Steven Levy, Hackers: The Heroes of the Computer Revolution , NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 25th Anniversary ed., 2010
__Christopher Felix McDonald, Building the Information Society: A History of Computing as a Mass Medium, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Princeton University, 2011
__John Quarterman, The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide. Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 1990.
__John Quarterman, "Networks from Technology to Community", Matrix News 1:2, May 1991
__Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. rev. ed., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.

Background - the Arts and Humanities

__Ascott, Roy and Carl Eugene Loeffler, Guest eds., Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications. Leonardo 24:2, 1991
__Anna Couey, "Restructuring Power: Telecomunications Works Produced by Women", in Judy Malloy, ed., Women, Art, and Technology. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2003 pp. 54-85
Steve Dietz, Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center , 2001
__Heidi Grundmann, ed, Art Telecommunication, Vancouver: Western Front; Vienna: BLIX, 1984
__Judy Malloy, Producer, Making Art Online, Reflux, 1991; ANIMA, 1994, currently housed on Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center, 2001

Network Email

__Computer History Museum
Ray Tomlinson: The Early Days of Email
__Ian Peter
The history of email in Ian Peter's History of the Internet
__Ray Tomlinson
_ "The First Network Email"
_ The First Email Computer

The Community Memory, 1973-1975
"The idea is to work with a process whereby technological tools, like computers, are used by the people themselves to shape their own lives and communities in sane and liberating ways. In this case the computer enables the creation of a communal memory bank, accessible to anyone in the community. With this, we can work on providing the information, services, skills, education, and economic strength our community needs."
Community Memory Flyer

The first Community Memory terminal. Housed in a cardbox box at Leopold's Records in Berkeley, California, it was an ASR-33 Teletype connected by a 110-baud line to an XDS-940 host in San Francisco. (Photo licensed by Mark Szpakowski for the Community Memory Project under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike)

__Computer History Museum Community Memory Messages __Lee Felsenstein: The First Community Memory, The Computer History Museum, 2011
__Joyce Slaton, "Remembering Community Memory, The Berkeley beginnings of online community", San Francisco Gate, December 13, 2001
__David F. Salisbury, "Community Memory Project: a step toward 'electronic village'", The Christian Science Monitor, August 29, 1984
__Mark Szpakowski, Community Memory Home

PLATO Notes, PLATO Talkomatic, 1973

__PLATO History Foundation, PLATO History
__David R. Woolley, "PLATO: The Emergence of Online Community" article originally appeared in the January 1994 issue of Matrix News.

Satellite Arts, 1977

Kris Paulsen, "'Image as Place': The Phenomenal Screen in Kit Galloway & Sherrie Rabinowitz's Satellite Arts 1977", Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 19:2, April 15, 2013

Send/Receive, 1977

Center for New Art Activities, New Work and Art Com/La Mamelle, Inc, San Francisco
A two-way interactive transmission between New York City and San Francisco, the project used a CTS satellite and cable television.
"Within the terrific 'electronic space' we conducted dance pieces using split screen, where dancers in NYC and SF would interact. Music experiments with performers playing to activity in SF and the reverse. Experiments in looping the signal around the system a few times and taking delight in the noise and delay. sorts of other investigations..." Carl Loeffler, quoted in Judy Malloy, "Memories of Art Com and La Mamelle", Authoring Software, last update, May, 3012

Willoughby Sharp photo: Pamela Seymour Smith
licensed by Pamela Seymour Smith under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

__Carl Eugene Loeffler and Roy Ascott, "Chronology and Working Survey of Select Teecommunications Activity" in Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler, guest eds, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Leonardo 24:2, 1991. pp. 236-240
__Gene Mchugh, "Out-of-Body: Willoughby Sharp's Work on Art and Technology" Rhizome, February 25, 2009
__Rachel Wetzler, "Send/Receive: Liza Bear and Willoughby Sharp After Avalanche", Rhizome, Novemeber 29, 2012

MUDs and MOOs 1978-

__Richard Bartle, "Interactive Multi-User Computer Games," MUSE Ltd Research Report, December, 1990
__Pavel Curtis, "Mudding: Social Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Reality", Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, April, 1992. CSL-92-4 (EFF "MOO_MUD_IRC" Archive)
__Pavel Curtis and David A. Nichols, "MUDs Grow Up: Social Virtual Reality in the Real World", Palo Alto, CA: Xerox PARC: Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, May 5, 1993 (EFF "MOO_MUD_IRC" Archive)

__Authoring Software, MUDS and MOOS, 2013

USENET, 1979-

__Cara Bonnett, "A Piece of Internet History", DukeToday, May 17, 2010
__Howard Rheingold, "Grassroots Groupminds", in Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community, Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, MIT Press; revised edition, 2000.
__Gene Spafford, "Usenet Software: History and Sources"

Internet Systems Consortium, (untitled list of USENET groups)

Google Groups 20 Year Usenet Timeline

ARTBOX/ARTEX, 1981-1991

"My belief in this new order of the text, actually a new order of discourse, and my wish to exercise and celebrate the participatory mode of dispersed authorship which networking affords, led me to devise a project wholly concer ned with the interweaving of textual inputs from a global distribution of artists. This became 'La Plissure du Texte' in the exhibition ELECTRA 1983 in the Musee d'art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. The title of the project alludes, of course, to Roland Barthes' book 'Le Plaisir du Texte' but pleating (Plissure) is not intended to replace pleasure (plaisir) only to amplify and enhance it." Roy Ascott, Art and Telematics, in Heidi Grundmann, ed, Art Telecommunication, Vancouver: Western Front; Vienna: BLIX, 1984. pp. 24-68

__ I.P. Sharpe
__ Robert Adrian X. Medien, Kunst, Netz
__Robert Adrian, "Art and Telecommunication, 1979-1986: The Pioneer Years", in Steve Dietz, Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Museum, 2001
__Robert Adrian, "Bartlett/Interplay, To: nettime-l {AT} bbs.thing.net, March 19, 2001
__Roy Ascott, La Plissure du Texte, December 11 to 23, 1983 (ARTEX)
__Roy Ascott, "Art and Telematics", Towards a Network Consciousness," in Roy Ascott, Telematic Embrace, Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness. Edward A. Shanken, Editor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.
__Heidi Grundmann, ed, Art Telecommunication, Vancouver: Western Front; Vienna: BLIX, 1984
__Jeremy Turner, "OUTER SPACE: The Past, Present and Future of Telematic Art - 04, Interview with Norman White about Early Telematic Art at Open Space Gallery in Victoria, OUTERSPACE, December, 2003
Norman White, hearsay, Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center, 2001

The Minitel, France 1982-

__Serge Bouchardon, "Digital Literature in France", University of Technology of Compiegne, COSTECH laboratory
__Angelique Chrisafis, "France says farewell to the Minitel -- the little box that connected a country"
The Guardian, June 28, 2012
__Jack Kessler, "The French Minitel - Is There Digital Life Outside of the 'US ASCII' Internet? A Challenge or Convergence?", D-Lib Magazine, December 1995
March 06, 2013
__Marc Weber, "Endangered Online Worlds", Computer History Museum, March 06, 2013

IN.S.OMNIA, 1983-1993 (Invisible Seattle's Omnia)
__Rob Wittig, The Invisible Seattle Phrasebook, 2012
__Rob Wittig, Invisible Rendezvous: Connection and Collaboration in the New Landscape of Electronic Writing, Wesleyan University Press, University Press of New England, 1994.

The Electronic Cafe, 1984-circa 1997

"THE CHALLENGE: We Must Create at the Same Scale as We can Destroy If the arts are to take a role in shaping and humanizing emerging technological environments, individuals and arts constituencies must begin to imagine at a much larger scale of creativity." -- Kit Galloway & Sherrie Rabinowitz, "The Electronic Cafe" in Judy Malloy, Producer, Making Art Online, 1991-1994, Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center, 2001

__ Electronic Cafe, International, 18th Street Arts Center
__Steven Durland, "Defining the Image as Place, a Conversation with Kit Galloway Sherrie Rabinowitz & Gene Youngblood", High Performance 37:53-59. 1987



__David Alan Grier and Mary Campbell, "Social History of Bitnet and Listserv, 1985-1991", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 22:2, April 2000. pp. 32-41

The WELL, 1985-
Founders: Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant

Sysop David Hawkins, (dhawk) with the VAX 11/750
in the original Sausalito dock office of The WELL
photo John Coate, circa 1988

__Ascott, Roy and Carl Eugene Loeffler, Guest eds., Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications. Leonardo 24:2
__John Coate, "Art Communication and The WELL", in Leonardo, Supplemental Issue, Electronic Art 1988. p.118
__Cliff Figallo, "The WELL: Small Town on the Internet Highway System", September, 1993
(Adapted from a paper presented to the "Public Access to the Internet" meeting sponsored by the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in May, 1993. fig@well.com)
__Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. rev. ed., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000
__Howard Rheingold, WELL Party 1989: proto-online social network meetup, Boing Boing, 2008
__Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006
__ WELL Tales

The WELL, "Learn About The WELL"

Art Com Electronic Network, 1986-circa 1992

Art Com Electronic Network Founder, Carl Loeffler
photo: Judy Malloy, at "Art and Telecommunications," NCGA Conference, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, June 10, 1989

"You know that I'd been following and participating in Canadian Art from the mid-seventies. And this had gotten us involved in slo-scan video and computer networking projects as early as the late seventies. In 1979/80 at SF MOMA we did a project called ARTISTS USE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS where we created a slo-scan link from that museum to cultural facilities in Tokyo, Vancouver, Toronto, Vienna, NYC, and Boston. The transmission was broadcast live on TV in Austria. To coordinate it all we used I.P. Sharpe and Associates, a Canadian based telecom carrier. The event is major in the history of art, because it was the "first" time this activity found its way to a museum. We interacted with these locations from SF MOMA, and it was great." Carl Loeffler as quoted in Judy Malloy, Memories of Art Com and La Mamelle, 2011

The Art Com Electronic Menu circa 1987

__Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler, guest eds, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Leonardo 24:2, 1991
__Carl Loeffler, "Telecomputing und die digitale Kultur", Ars Electronica 1989, Ars Electronica Arkiv
__Carl Loeffler, "New Art Online", in Leonardo, Supplemental Issue, Electronic Art 1988
__Judy Malloy, Memories of Art Com and La Mamelle, 2011
Netweaver - April, 1987
__George Por, "ART COM ELECTRONIC NETWORK", Netweaver, 1987.

The Mail Art Factor

"'Information....in Communication Theory, is the Successive Selection of Signs, Without Regard to Their Meaning'" Mail Art from Ed Higgins, 1984

Madelyn Kim Starbuck, Clashing and Converging: Effects of the Internet on the Correspondence Art Network, Dissertation, Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 2003


"Date: 14 May 1987, 20:17:18 EDT
Sender: HUMANIST Discussion

Welcome to HUMANIST

"HUMANIST is a Bitnet/NetNorth electronic mail network for people who support computing in the humanities. Those who teach, review software, answer questions, give advice, program, write documentation, or otherwise support research and teaching in this area are included. Although HUMANIST is intended to help these people exchange all kinds of information, it is primarily meant for discussion rather than publication or advertisement."

Willard McCarty, "Welcome to HUMANIST", May 14, 1987

__Willard McCarty, "HUMANIST: Lessons from a Global Electronic Seminar", Computers and the Humanities 26:3, 1992. pp. 205-222

IGC, 1987-
(PeaceNet, EcoNet, WomensNet, ConflictNet, LaborNet, and AntiRacismNet)

"About IGC"

Internet Relay Chat

__ "Internet Relay Chat" in The Internet, 2000-, includes segments on EMISARI, The PLATO System, CompuServe CB and others,
__J. Oikarinen, and D. Reed, Internet Relay Chat Protocol, May 1993

EchoNYC, 1990-

Echo Founder, Stacy Horn

__Stacy Horn, Cyberville: Clicks, Culture, and the Creation of an Online Town, NY, Warner Books, 1998
__Stacy Horn, "The 1st Social Network"

System X, 1990

Scot Art, "System X", in Judy Malloy, Producer, "System X" Making Art Online, 1991-1994, Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center, 2001

The Thing, 1991-

Wolfgang Staehle, director of The Thing: Screen grab of The Thing


__Dike Blair, HIS THINGNESS, Interview with Wolfgang Staehle
__ Wolfgang Staehle
__Wolfgang Staehle, "The Thing", Median Kuntz, Netz
__ The Internet Before the Web: Preserving Early Networked Cultures, the New Museum, March 8, 2013
"New Museum's Digital Conservator Ben Fino-Radin in conversation with renowned archivist, historian, and documentary filmmaker Jason Scott and Wolfgang Staehle, artist and founder of The Thing BBS"

"WOLFGANG STAEHLE - 2001, Postmasters, NYC a work intended to offer viewers 'the antidote of a reflective slowdown of beautiful images; now reflects the destruction of September 11, Arts Wire Current, September 18, 2001

Judy Malloy, "NTT/VERIO to Terminate thing.net after Dow Chemical Corporation Threatens Legal Action Against Yes Men Parody"; Shutting Down an Entire Artists Network over an Unresolved Complaint about One Site sets a Worrisome Precedent for Corporate Control over the Work of Artists", NYFA Current, January 8, 2003

Blacksburg Electronic Village 1991-

Arts Wire, 1992-2002

Image from the Arts Wire Website

"The mission of Arts Wire is to provide the arts community a communications network that has, at its core, the strong voices of artists and community-based cultural groups. With this foundation, Arts Wire intends to develop a broad and inclusive on-line community that allows distinct communities to establish their own standards and patterns of use within a system that reinforces democratic values and encourages interaction among its users. resources among a group of interested peers."

From Arts Wire's Mission statement, circa 1992
Arts Wire on the Wayback Machine, December 18, 1996
Use the links to explore Arts Wire in depth via The Wayback Machine
__ NYFA's History
__Judy Malloy, Memories of Arts Wire, 2011
__Anna Couey and Judy Malloy, Interactive Art Conference, 1993-1998
__Aida Mancillas and Lynn Susholtz, "Project Artnet"
documented in Anna Couey, "Restructuring Power: Telecommunications Works Produced by Women" in Judy Malloy, ed., Women, Art & Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003. p. 66
__Pauline Oliveros, Douglas Cohen and David Mahler, NewMusNet
__GENIND/NEME, Gender and Identity in New Media
Produced by Judy Malloy
Participants included Robert Atkins, Dara Birnbaum. Amanda McDonald Crowley, Joseph DeLappe, Carolyn Guertin Jennifer Hall, Blyth Hazen, Patricia Kim-Rajal, Brenda Laurel, Cecile Le Prado. Jacalyn Lopez Garcia Jaishree Odin, Pauline Oliveros, Christiane Paul, Frank Popper, Sonya Rapoport, Cynthia Beth Rubin, Allucquere Rosanne Stone, Loriann Two Bulls (Ogala Lakota) and Pamela Z, among maany others.

Cultures in Cyberspace, Nov 2-13, 1992.
Anna Couey, producer. Participants were American Indian Telecommunication/Dakota BBS; ArtsNet; (Australia) Arts Wire; USENET; and The WELL.

The Telluride InfoZone

The Telluride InfoZone
Image Source: Richard Lowenberg, Founding Director

__Denise Caruso, Community Networking in Colorado
__Steve Cisler, "Telluride, Colorado Ideas Festival: Tele-community.July 23-25, 1993", EFF "Net Culture - Virtual Community" Archive
__Richard Lowenberg, Telluride InfoZone, hosted on the Vasulka Archive
__Alice McInnes, "The Agency of the Infozone, Exploring the Effects of a Community Network", First Monday, 2:2-3, February 1997
__Eric S. Theise, "Megabytes at Kilofeet: The Telluride Ideas Festival and InfoZone" "This article appeared with minor deletions in Fringe Ware Review #3"

H-Net, 1993-

H-Net List Preservation Project

__Mark Lawrence Kornbluh and Peter Knupfer, "H-Net Ten Years On: Usage, Impact and the Problems of Professionalization in New Media", paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, Chicago, January 2003.
__James P. Niessen, "H-Net and the Republic of Letters: New Models of Scholarly Communication", Presentation at the International Booksellers and Librarians Centre Frankfurt Book Fair, October 16, 1999. (revised May 2000)

H-AMSTDY, (American Studies) June 1993-

TrAce Online Writing Centre, 1995-2005

TrAce Business Card - courtesy of TrAce founder, Sue Thomas

__ Archive of the TrAce Online Writing Centre 1995-2005
__J. R. Carpenter, "Traces of the trAce Online Writing Centre 1995-2005", Jacket 2

Index of the eliterature chats hosted by Deena Larsen
__ TrAce ForumLive & Online Meeting MOO/Chat logs
A selected archive of logs of trAce online meetings, including joint trAce/elo chats

Social Media in the Arts and Humanities:
Additional Resources

Roy Ascott, Telematic embrace : Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness, edited and with an essay by Edward A. Shanken. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007

Authoring Software Resource Pages
__ Muds and Moos
__ Twitter
__ Computer-Mediated Collaborative Writing

danah boyd, Bibliography of Research on Social Network Sites

J.R. Carpenter, "Getting in on the Ground Floor: A Hazy History of How and Why We Banded Together" (about StudioXX)

Casey, James (Cherokee) Randy Ross, (Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and Otoe Missouria) and Marcia Warren, (Santa Clara Pueblo of New Mexico) Native Networking: Telecommunications and. Information Technology in Indian Country. Washington, DC, Benton Foundation, 1999.

Lynn Cherny and Elizabeth Reba Weise, eds., Wired Women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, Seattle, WA, Seal Press, 1996

Beth Coleman, Hello Avatar, Rise of the Networked Generation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011

Amanda McDonald Crowley, "Internet Art: 1992 - 2014", March 10, 2013

Amanda McDonald Crowley, X-Lab, October 26, 2010 - January 29, 2010

Leonardo Flores, "Authorial Scholarship 2.0: Tracing the creative process in online communities", ELMCIP Conference on Remediating the Social, Nov. 1-3, 2012, 2012

Coco Fusco, "Performance Art in a Digital Age: A Live Conversation with Ricardo Dominguez" Institute of International Visual Arts, London, November 1999

Jennifer Hall and Blyth Hazen: "Do While Studio" in Judy Malloy, ed, Women, Art & Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003. pp. 290-301

Kathy Rae Huffman, "Face Settings: an International Co-cooking and Communication Project" by Eva Wohlgemuth and Kathy Rae Huffman in Judy Malloy, Editor, Women, Art & Technology. Cambridge, MA, 2003.pp. 398-411

Jeff Mann, "The Matrix Artists' Network: An Electronic Community", Leonardo, 24:2, 1991 pp. 230-231

Bruce Mason and Sue Thomas, "A Million Penguins Research Report", Institute of Creative Technologies, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, April 24, 2008

Medien Kunst Netz/Media Art Net, Communication

Nick Montfort and Emily Short, Interactive Fiction Communities
From Preservation through Promotion and Beyond"
in Scott Rettberg and Patricia Tomaszek, eds, Electronic Literature Communities, Part 1, dichtung-digital, Nr. 41

Lisa Nakamura, Cybertypes : Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet, New York and London, Routledge, 2002

Scott Rettberg, "All Together Now: Hypertext, Collective Narrative, and Online Collective Knowledge Communities" in Ruth Page and Bronwen Thomas, eds New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age, University of Nebraska Press, 2011

Scott Rettberg and Patricia Tomaszek, eds
__ Electronic Literature Communities, Part 1, dichtung-digital, Nr. 41
__ Electronic Literature Communities, Part 2 dichtung-digital, Nr. 42

Jill Walker Rettberg, Blogging, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2008. a second edition is in press

Warren Sack and Michael Dale, Street Stories: Designing Networked, Narrative Places of Community. Digital Arts / New Media Program University of California, Santa Cruz

Penny Travlou, "Rhizomes, Lines and Nomads: Doing Fieldwork with Creative Networked Communities", ELMCIP Conference on Remediating the Social, Nov. 1-3, 2012, 2012

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Telecommunications Technology and Native Americans: Opportunities and Challenges", OTA-ITC-621, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1995

Christine Wilks, Randy Adams, and Chris Joseph, "R3/\/\1X\/\/0RX - an artist's presentation" ELMCIP Conference on Remediating the Social, Nov. 1-3, 2012, 2012

Rob Wittig, "Shyness, Cushions, and Food - Case Studies in American Creative Communities", dichtung-digital, 2012.

Contemporary Digital Humanities
Social Media Platforms

This section of the Social Media Community resource
will focus on Cultural Social Media, beginning in the World Wide Web Era
and will be greatly expanded and organized historically in 2014

#BlackWriters (Twitter hastag)


Critical Code Studies, Humanities and Critical Code Studies Lab
Mark Marino, Director

#dhpoco (Twitter hashtag) - Postcolonial Digital Humanities
Adeline Koh and Roopika Risam, founders

__Serge Bouchardon, "Digital Literature in France", University of Technology of Compiegne, COSTECH laboratory

Electronic/Digital Literature (Google+)

#elit (Twitter hashtag)

Fembot Collective

Furtherfield, 1997-
"Furtherfield was founded by artists Ruth Catlow and Marc Garrett in 1997 and sustained by the work of its community as the Internet took shape as a new public space for internationally connected cultural production."
Furtherfield "about" statement

Gender & Identity in New Media, an online Conference Produced by Judy Malloy
for the Invencao Conference, Sao Paulo,
Brazil, August 25-29, 1999

HASTAC, 2002-
founded by Cathy N. Davidson (Duke University) and David Theo Goldberg (Director, UCHRI)

The Hermeneia Research Group
__Laura Borràs Castanyer, "Growing up Digital:The Emergence of E-Lit Communities in Spain. The Case of Catalonia 'And the Rest is Literature'", Dichtung Digital No. 42

MLA Commons



Rhizome, 1996-
"Artist Mark Tribe recognized that in order for this innovative form of expression to push its way into the forefront of contemporary art, there must be a platform of meanful communication among its creators. In February of 1996, he launched Rhizome, an online gathering of artists, authors, designers, programmers, musicians, curators, critics and groupies from all over the world"
Lila Sneed, "Rhizome Internet", Silicon Alley Reporter, 1997

Rhizome Mission Statement

__Mark Tribe and Reena Jana, New Media Art, Cologne: Taschen Verlag
__ Rhizome Archive

Studio XX


Twitter, 2006-

Vision Maker Media - Interact
(Native American Social Media)

last update, January 7, 2013
For information about the Authoring Software project, email Judy Malloy at jmalloy@well.com

Authoring Software

Authoring Software
Tools and Applications