A Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture
(or maybe)

A Work-In-Progress
Copyright 1993, 2005
Send comments, additions, corrections to: mareev [at] well [dot] com
and please use "sixties" or "timeline" in the e-mail title.

"I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing. . .
It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. . .
God forbid that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion. . ."

Thomas Jefferson (1780)

--- Beginnings to 1879: Feudalism and the Inquisition ---
Date   Context   Counterculture Events   The Arts   The Period
700s (late)  

Charlemagne enlarges kingdom by conquering everything within reach

Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 11: Day 6: Flowering - 829 - 1223    
750 - 1031   750 Abbasid massacre of the Umayyads in Damascas, Syria;
755 Abd Al-Rahman, son of an Arab and a Moroccan Berber, escapes to al-Andalus, Iberia, & establishes a kingdom at Cordoba.

  1012-1020 - The first Cathars appear in Limousin.
Their beliefs came originally from Eastern Europe by way of trade routes. The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was also applied to the Albigenses, and they maintained an association with the Bogomils of Thrace. Their doctrines have numerous resemblances to those of the Bogomils (and Paulicians). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathar
  955 Byzantines present caliph of Cordoba with a translation of a Greek medical book, among the many Greek works which were being translated in Baghdad into Arabic.    
1031   Cordoban caliphate dissolves into some 60 taifas.

1072   Palermo, capital of Islamic Sicily, falls to invaders.

1085   Alfonso VI of Castile conquers Islamic taifa of Toledo; 1086 Almoravids from North Africa arrive and defeat Alfonso.
By 1090, the taifas are all part of a new Almoravid kingdom.
1095- 1100


First Crusade

: The Crusades went on for 250 years

  1109 anti-Almorovid riots in Cordoba following public book-burning of the writings of al-Ghazali, legendary theologian with a humane approach to Islam.   1106 Petrus, a converted Jew, moves to England and writes The Priestly Tales, model for both Chaucer and Boccaccio.  

Middle Ages

1132   Henry I of France grants charters of corporate towns protecting commerce and industry      

1145 Averroes 20
1160 Maimonides 20

rise of guilds in medieval cities
1140       Peter Abelard condemned by the Pope.

1142       Peter the Venerable hires an English explorer to translate into Latin a book from the library of Toledo: Algebra, a work by al-Khawarizmi, ninth-century scholar of Baghdad.

1170       Peter (Pierre) Valdes (or Waldo) of Lyons, merchant, commits his two daughters to the care of a convent, makes arrangements for his wife's lifelong support, and, having given away the rest of his fortune, begins to preach in the streets of Lyons (France), and requests and is granted a translation of the Gospels.

1183- 1202       Joachim de Flores envisions a progressive (rather than cylical) order of time (predicts world will end in 1260)

By the early 1300s, the Poor Men of Lyons, followers of Pierre Wald, have spread into Languedoc and northern Italy, and then into Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and even Hungary and Poland. Calling themselves simply "brethren" or "the poor of Christ," Waldensians travel by pairs into the surrounding countryside, penniless and simply dressed. Many cultivated the ability to recite large portions of the Bible from memory. ["The Waldensians are exterminated in a bloody papal crusade in the early 1200s."]

  The Waldensians repudiate Catholic doctrines such as purgatory, prayers for the dead, transubstantiation, and submission to the Pope and prelates. They held to the priesthood of all believers, denied the Catholic view of apostolic succession, rejected any form of violence military or legal, and refused to take oaths.
  Second Crusade (1144-1150) to 1500s: Northern Crusades in the Baltic Sea area and in Central Europe were efforts by (mostly German) Christians to subjugate and convert the peoples of these areas to Christianity.
1204   Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople

1208-1244   Albigensian crusade against the Cathars (Languedoc)

1209       Francis of Assisi (Italy) starts his brotherhood (the Franciscans) (he is 27)        
1210       Episcopal synod in Paris bans the commentaries on Aristotle written by the Cordoban Averroes.        
1211-   Conquest of the silk route lands by Genghis Khan

1215   King John of England seals the Magna Carta at Runnymede            
Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 12: Night 6: Fine tuning - 1223 - 1617    
1229   The Inquisition in Toulouse forbids Bible reading by all laymen     THE INQUISITION WAS IN FORCE IN SOME PARTS OF EUROPE FROM 1229 to 1808   1200s - Troubadours of Provence introduce the concept of love into their ballads, much based on the music of the Moors of Spain
1236       Cordoba captured by Christians; 1238 Valencia; 1248 Seville.
Granada survives as Islamic for another 250 years, until 1492.
1252   The Inquisition begins to use instruments of torture          
1255       A new "purged" Aristotle is being officially taught in Paris;
Paris becomes the center of educated world for 25 years.
1258   The first House of Commons in Britain


  Meister Eckhart, German preacher & mystic (1260-1327)



  1200s late:
ommercial and industrial boom in the north and central Italian cities; Florence becomes the leading European city in commerce and finance; beginnings of manufacturing industries; Hanseatic League forms in Germany; Swiss League forms; many European universities founded
1271-   Ninth Crusade (last)
With the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291) the last traces of the Christian occupation of Syria disappear.

  1277 Bishop of Paris has condemned 219 propositions of Aristotle that may no longer be taught.      
1288   Vietnamese resist 500,000 troops of Kublai Khan, culminating in a surprise sinking of the Mongol ships in the Bach Dang River.          

--- 1305: First generation born after the end of the Crusades starts to turn 20 ---
1305-???   1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).

  Granada - Arab culture still flourishing   1305- : generation (Artist)
born 1285-
turns 20


--- 13xx: First generation born after the start of the Avignon Papacy starts to turn 20 ---

???-1346   1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).

(England: climate becomes colder & wetter)

  Granada - Arab culture still flourishing   13??-1346: generation (Prophet)
born 12??-1326 turns 20

1304 - Dante Alighieri (1265-) (39) writes De vulgari eloquentia, his path-breaking history and rhetoric of vernacular literature.

April 6th, 1327 - Petrarch (1304- ) (23), co-founder of humanism, student of the classics, sees Laura for the first time, goes on to write hundreds of sonnets to her


--- 1347: First generation born after xxx starts to turn 20 ---

1347-51   Black Death devastates Europe (75 million people, including 1/3 of English population)

1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).
  Granada - Arab culture still flourishing   1347-1351: generation (Nomad)
born 1327-1331 turns 20

1349-1353: Boccaccio (1313-) (36) (Florence), co-founder of humanism, writes the Decameron, 100 stories told over 10 days by 10 people escaping from the plague.


--- 1352: First generation born after the Black Death starts to turn 20 ---

1352-73   1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).   Granada - Arab culture still flourishing   1352-1373: generation (Hero)
born 1332-1353 turns 20


--- 1372: First generation born after the Black Death ends starts to turn 20 ---

1374   1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).   England: Rector John Wyclif(fe) (1330-84) begins to argue for "dominion founded on grace" - that the right to exercise authority in church or state and the right to own property are given to men directly from God, and that they are not given or continued apart from sanctifying grace. Thus, a man in a state of mortal sin can not lawfully function as an official of church or state, nor can he lawfully own property. Wycliffe argues that the Church has fallen into sin and that it ought therefore to give up all its property and that the clergy should live in complete poverty.

  1374-1402: generation (Artist)
born 1354-1382 turns 20

In 1373 the citizens of Florence choose Boccaccio to give the world's first lecturae Dantis, probably the first lecture series ever dedicated to the exposition of a European vernacular text.
1377   1378-1417 Papal Schism:Europe splits its allegiance between two Catholic popes.   John Wycliffe, "Morning star of the Reformation", on trial. King and Parliament had asked his judgement on whether it was lawful to withhold traditional payments from Rome, and he responded that it was. The Pope issued five bulls against him. Wyclif's last political act was in 1378, when he argued that criminals who had taken sanctuary in churches might lawfully be dragged out of sanctuary.

1381   Papal Schism   Wycliffe starts publishing attacks on corruption in the Church, and also on the doctrine of transubstantiation (once the Eucharist has been consecrated, the bread is no longer present in reality, but only in appearance). Wycliffe taught instead that the bread remains, but that Christ is truly present in the bread, though not in a material manner. Some of his powerful supporters could not accept the latter.

England: Peasants Revolt against landlords, under Wat Tyler, thought to be inspired by Wycliffe (John Ball)
1382   Papal Schism  

Wycliffe makes first major English translation of Bible (first translation into a European language in 1000 years); Wyclif is expelled from his teaching position at Oxford, and his doctrines are condemned by the London synod, and all of his writings are banned.

  1387 -1400: Geoffrey Chaucer writes The Canterbury Tales    
    Papal Schism   Lollards, itinerant preachers inspired by Wycliffe, roam throughout England, attack Church corruption, emphasize individual interpretation of the Bible

1396   Papal Schism   Greek classics start to be taught in Italy --> revival of Greek literature in Italy        

--- 1403: First generation born after Wyclif's writings starts to turn 20 ---


1400- 1500
(Florence under the Medici is the center; Leonardo da Vinci)

Enclosures in Britain (1400s- 1500s) - as destructive as these were of country life, they are also said to have forced farming families to move to cities, where they started small trades like weaving, which eventually led to the start of factories and industrialization.

1445-1501: 35,000 books printed in 10 million copies from 1000 offices
1401 to 1409   Papal Schism to 1417   Wyclif's doctrine of the Lord's Supper may have spread to Prague as early as 1399, but his writings are definitely brought to Bohemia in 1401-02. Jan Hus (ca 1369-) ((Prague), a student, is greatly attracted by Wyclif's writings, particularly by his philosophical realism. Hus believes that the Bible, not the Catholic church, is the ultimate authority for Christian believers.

King Wenceslaus orders the prelates of the University of Prague to observe neutrality toward the pope.But only the Bohemian nation, with Hus as its spokesman, avows neutrality. Wyclif's ideas gain even wider circulation after prohibited in 1403, as Hus preached and taught them. The doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites, who made it the central point of their system.

1398-1416 - Hussites & Taborites

In 1409, the Pope bans Hus and all Wyclif's writings.
July 6, 1415 - Hus burned at the stake.

1400s - Waldensians, greatly diminished by persecution; remaining followers hide in the alpine valleys of France and Italy, become followers of John Hus.

  1403-1431: generation (Prophet)
born 1383-1411 turns 20


--- 1430s: First generation born after the Papal Schism and Jan Hus starts to turn 20 ---

1431       First German peasant revolt at Worms

  1430-1452: generation (Nomad)
born 1410-1432 turns 20

1430s Van Eyck


--- 1453: First generation born after xxx starts to turn 20 ---

1453       Gutenberg prints the bible at Mainz, Germany

  1453-1480: Arthurian generation (Hero)
born 1433-1460 turns 20

Botticelli (1445-1510)
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)
Girolamo Savonarola

        Francois Villon, poet (Mais ou sont les neiges d'antan?)
"the first Bohemian" (1431-1463)
1459 to 1487   CRISIS:
Wars of the Roses

1463   Orvieto, Italy: money loaned at interest to poor people


--- 1481: First generation born after printing starts to turn 20 ---

1481   Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition under joint direction of the state & the church (Torquemada)       1481-1502: Humanist generation (Artist)
born 1461-1482 turns 20

Pico della Mirandola (Humanist) (1463-1494),
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527),
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564),

Baldassare Castiglione
1493       The first Bundschuh (peasants' revolt) in Alsace & southwestern Germany    
1501   Moors of Spain defeated        



1502       Peasants' revolt, Speyer, Germany    



Europe's exploration & colonization of Asia, Africa, Central & South America

Rise of the centralized state

--- 1503: First generation born after Humanism starts to turn 20 ---

1509   Restart of European slave trade; settlers bring Africans to South America       Michelangelo working on the Sistine chapel 1508-1512  

Copernicus states that the earth and planets revolve around the sun (1549 objection)

Erasmus (c.1466-1536) Holland's great & gentle Humanist, advocates Catholic reforms which influenced Luther

  1503-1531: Reformation generation (Prophet)
born 1483-1511 turns 20
1513       Peasants' revolt: Wurttemberg and Black Forest      
1514       Peasants' revolt, Hungary

1516       Sir Thomas More: Utopia
(1551 translated from Latin to English)

  October 31 - Martin Luther (24) (1483-1546), inspired by the conservative Hussites, protests against the Church's sales of indulgences by posting his 95 theses on the door of the Palast Church, Wittenberg --> Reformation in Germany

1524-5       Peasants' revolt against landlords of southern Germany led by Thomas Munzer, founder of the Anabaptist movement (& Austria) - defeated.

1526       Second wave of strength and influence for the Waldensians begins with the introduction of reform theology into their ranks by Guillaume Farel.

1527       Martin Cellarius, a friend of Luther, is the first literary pioneer of the Unitarian movement.

1528       The weavers of Kent riot against Wolsey's policy to move English staple town for wool from Antwerp to Calais.

1531       Michael Servetus publishes theological treatise: De Trinitatis Erroribus (On the Errors About the Trinity); the Unitarian movement looks to him as pioneer and first martyr (burned at the stake 1553).

1532       At a conference held at Cianforan in the Piedmont Alps, the Waldensian barbes, or "uncles", agree to join the budding Swiss Protestant movement.

  1532-1560: Reprisal generation (Nomad)
born 1512-1540 turns 20
1534 `       Communist state' of Anabaptists under leadership of John of Leiden at Munster, Westphalia.

1536   First European newspaper: Gazetta, Venice   Church of England separates from the Pope

Jean Calvin (26) (a Frenchman in exile in Geneva) publishes several revisions of his Institutes of the Christian Religion — a seminal work in Christian theology — in Latin and then in his native French in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 and 1560, respectively.

1539       Poland: Catherine (80), wife of Melchior Vogel or Weygel, burned at Cracow for apostasy, deism.      
1547   Nostradamus
makes first predictions


Waldensians had decided to build their own churches, which earned them concentrated persecution from the Duke of Savoy. They took up arms for the first time. The Duke finally relented and allowed the dissenters the right of existence and worship within a certain limited area. This was the first such war and victory in Europe.

Other communities of Waldensians experienced persecution well into the 19th century, when full civil rights were finally granted them across Europe.

Some Waldensians emigrated to Uruguay in the late 1800s, and from there to the United States, where they werejoined by other Waldensians from Europe. Small communities were established in Missouri, Texas, and Utah, where many Mormons today still bear Waldensian surnames. Their strongest presence is found in the town of Valdese, North Carolina, whose population of 3000 is still largely Waldensian.

Also, first synod of Polish anti-Trinitarian / Anabaptists.

1560       Huguenots (France) / Puritans (England)

1566       Calvinist rebellion in Netherlands; Inquisition there abolished   1561-1585: Elizabethan generation (Hero) born 1541-1565 turns 20    
1567   Two million Native Americans in South America die of typhoid fever

1572   St. Bartholomew day massacre, Paris - 10,000 French Huguenots (Protestants) killed by order of French rulers.


  Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
"Shakespeare (1564-1616)
1579   CRISIS: Spanish Armada 1569-1594   Spain: St. John of the Cross: born 1542, having made the acquaintance of St. Teresa, inaugurates reform among friars, 1568. The reform spread rapidly.
Ordered to return to the house of his profession, he refused, owing to the fact that he held his office not from the order but from the Apostolic delegate; taken prisoner1577, where he suffered for more than nine months close imprisonment in a narrow, stifling cell, with additional punishment. In the midst of his sufferings he was visited with heavenly consolations, and some of his exquisite poetry dates from that period. Escaped 1578, and soon after wrote "The Dark Night of the Soul". His works first appear at Barcelona in 1619.
            1586-1607: Parliamentarian generation (Artist) born 1566-1587 turns 20

1590           Edmund Spensor: The Faerie Queene - long, dense allegory, in the epic form, of Christian virtues, tied into England's mythology of King Arthur.

1606   Founding of Virginia colony starts the colonization
of North America


science, European wars, witch trials, dueling, slaving

Dynastic wars
exhaust Europe
1610   Galileo invents telescope

1612   Last recorded burning of heretics in England          
1615       Galileo faces the Inquisition for the first time


Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 13: Day 7: Fruition - 1617 - October 28, 2011

1620       Pilgrims, fleeing Europe to be able to practice their faith, settle near Plymouth, Massachusetts. Followed later by the Puritans (Massachusetts Bay [1630]), Dutch Reformed Church & French Huguenots (New York)(1624), and more.

Most settlers in the American Mid-Atlantic and New England were Calvinists, including the Puritans and Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam (New York). Dutch Calvinist settlers were also the first successful European colonizers of South Africa, beginning in the 17th century, who became known as Boers or Afrikaners.

  1608-1637: Puritan generation (Prophet)
born 1588-1617 turns 20

1608-1648: Paris Salon of Mme. de Rambouillet (first famous French salon)
Puritan 1621-1649
  Transylvania: new sect, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies, arises (maintained an existence till 1848). (origins of Unitarian Church)      
1631   First French newspaper: The Gazette de France      

1638       England: John Lilburne (approx. 24), or "Free born John," arrested by Church officials for distributing banned literature, whipped, pilloried, fined and thrown into prison. He smuggled out "A Worke of the Beast, or a relation of a most unchristian censure, executed upon J. Lilburne". After release in 1640, he joined the New Model Army, and was a founder of the Leveller movement.

The term unitarius is officially adopted by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.

  1638-1667 - Cavalier generation (Nomad)
born 1618-1647 turns 20
  1630- 1680

1641       René Descartes (1596-1650): Meditations on First Philosophy: In Which the Existence of God and the Distinction Between Mind and Body are Demonstrated published in Latin; translated into French 1642. Descartes insisted on a radical philosophy that dispensed, as far as possible, with authority.

1646   English Civil War ("first") (to 1650)   England: "A Remonstrance of many Thousand Citizens" by Richard Overton (15, a Dutch refugee & London printer) establishes the Leveller movement. Charles I coined the derogatory name Leveller ("endeavor to cast down and level the enclosures of nobility, gentry, and property, to make us all even"). Levellers preached social equality and democracy; organized at a chapter level; meetings held at local taverns. The chapters were run democratically, a new concept.

1647   English Civil War continues   Levellers gain support among the rank and file unit representatives ("Agitators") of the New Model Army, a large volunteer army of the English people organized against the pro-Royalist and pro-Presbyterian members of the Long Parliament.
The Case of the Army Truly Stated (1647) outlined their concerns to obtain basic human/labour rights for the common soldier and input into the Army Council, the first "workers rights" demands in England.

Dec: Putney Debates - famous debate before the General Army Council to discuss this demand for rights pitted Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell against his friend and later son-in-law.

1648   English Civil War -
Many people were without jobs, business, or homes.Crops yields were poor. Food was scarce and expensive. Many people were starving and dying.

  England: Society of Friends (Quakers) founded by George Fox (24), who felt that neither outward profession of religion, nor learning, nor church-going is enough. From about 1648 he went out into the world challenging all that was merely conventional. He refused to doff his hat, bow or follow the usual social courtesies. He refused to use worldly titles or to take oaths. He attacked churches, calling them 'steeple-houses', and priests, since none could stand between man and God - a refusal to pay tithes. He opposed war and preached truth and love. He was arrested, imprisoned, beaten, persecuted; yet he never returned violence for violence.

1648-16450 - Many common folks (some called "Diggers") started to farm the Commons of England for food.

Gerrard Winstanley, a merchant tailor in London, like others lost everything during the Civil War & was now reduced to herding livestock while living with his wife's relatives at Cobham, Surrey. Intelligent and well read, he began to write religious and social pamphlets.

Digger communities were being established at Dunstable (Bedfordshire), Iver (Buckinhhamshire), Barnet (Hamptonshire), Cox Hill (Kent?), Bosworth (Leicestershire), Entfield (Middlesex), Wellingborough (Northhamptonshire), & possibly also in Gloucestershire and Nottinghamshire.

Dec. 1648 (Digger tract) Light Shining in Buckinghamshire.


The Agreement of the People
(Leveller pamphlet)

Dec. 1648 - Pride's Purge. Soldiers of the New Model Army oust the Royalist supporters and the Presbyterian majority from Parliament, ushering in the smaller Rump Parliament (1648-53).


1649   English Civil War (to 1650):
The Rump Parliament which the New Model Army had helped to create executes Charles I January 1649, and then starts to consolidate its power and authority.


March: More Light Shining in Buckinghamshire (second Buckinghamshire Digger tract).

The New Law of Righteousness by Gerard Winstanley outlines a vision of a new democratic society of the "common man," ("Work together, Eat bread together"), rejecting the concept of private ownership of land, and calling for a peaceful return of public lands to the people.

March 20: The True Leveller Standard Advanced: or, The State of Community opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men (Winstanley's neighbor and friend The Reverend Mr. William Everard and fifteen other members were also listed on the title page). On the same day, Everard and Winstanley are called before Lord Fairfax for nine days of questioning.

April 1: Digger community starts tilling the common lands around St George's Hill, Surrey, led by Everard.

April: The Surrey Digger community attacked and buildings burned. By April 23, fifty Diggers are active in tilling the land in Surrey.

Meanwhile, the Leveller leadership issues pamphlets against the growing power of Parliament and General Cromwell. Cromwell has Parliament arrest Lilburne and the Leveller leadership. The public protests immediately and loudly. There are mutinies in the New Model Army.

10 May: large segments of the New Model Army assemble at Burford, Oxfordshire, demanding reparations. Forces under the military command of General, Lord Fairfax, and Lieutenant General Oliver Cromwell crush the rebels.The Levellers' major political power base is killed in the battle.

May 22-29, the Surrey Diggers, their crops and buildings attacked by locals, thugs, and malicious soldiers.

Early June: A Declaration from the Poor Oppressed People of England (by Winstanley) - asserts the right to fell trees on the common lands, and deny access to others, in direct opposition to the ancient practice of commonage.

June 11- a group of individuals disguised as women attacks the Digger community and beats four members.

About June 23, members of the Surrey Diggers community arrested and charged with trespassing.

July-August - the Surrey Diggers (about 50 individuals) moved their community a mile away to Cobham Heath on the commons of Cobham Manor, and re-started tilling, planting and building shelters.

October: local authorities try to have the Diggers removed from the Cobham land.

November: soldiers dispatched to assist the local Justices of Peace in removing the Diggers.


The Levellers were the first social democrats in English history. Many of the Levellers reforms and social democratic principles and concerns would not see fruit for over 200 years, including their message of toleration for others, and compassion for the needy.

But, unlike the Surrey Diggers who wanted a new society, the Levellers pursued moderate changes for the benefit of a new growing "working middle class".

1650       Despite the harsh winter of 1649-50, which was especially severe, the crops were doing well on Cobham Heath, with 11 acres under cultivation & 6-7 shelters.

March: small military detachment dispatched to Cobham Heath.

With pending legal actions against the Surrey Diggers, and their diminishing financial resources, the Surrey Diggers quietly disbanded their community by July.


Leveller leaders released except for Lilburne, charged with treason and inciting the populous. Leveller supporters overflow the courts. Judges and other local officials in London fear for their lives during the trial and there is fear of civil anarchy. Liliburne acquitted & exiled to Belgium. The Leveller movement is crushed.

1653       Peasants' revolt, Switzerland

1660   England: the Restoration  

Cafe Procope opens in Paris

Poland Unitarians: Anti-Trinitarians / Polish brethren, originally Arian (though excluding any worship of Christ) and Anabaptist, by 1588 they were adopted the views of Fausto Sozzini, who had settled in Poland in 1579 (Socinianism). Considered as Swedish collaborators during The Deluge (wars of 1648-1667), the Polish Diet exiled the anti-Trinitarians in 1660. A large number made their way to the Netherlands, others went to the German frontier.
The refugees in Amsterdam published the Bibliotheca fratrum polonorum (1665–1669); the title-page of this collection, bearing the words quos Unitarios vocant, introduced this term to Western Europe.

  1600s late to mid 1700s
dead period in art (court portraits, art)

1660s, 1670s Vermeer

1663   First English newspaper: The Public Intelligencer          
1665       Isaac Newton experiments on gravity

1670   First minute hands on watches

CRISIS: Colonial Glorious Revolution 1675-1704
  1670s: John Locke (1632-1704) proposes a radical conception of political philosophy deduced from the principle of self-ownership and the corollary right to own property, which in turn is based on his famous claim that a man earns ownership over a resource when he mixes his labour with it. Government, he argues, should be limited to securing the life and property of its citizens, and is only necessary because in an ideal, anarchic state of nature, various problems arise that would make life more insecure than under the protection of a minimal state. Locke is also renown for his writings on toleration in which he espoused the right to freedom of conscience and religion (except when religion was deemed intolerant!), and for his cogent criticism of hereditary monarchy and patriarchalism.

  1668-1693: Glorious generation (Hero)
born 1648-11673 turns 20

  More persecuted religious groups emigrate to North America: Quakers (Pennsylvania 1682), Swedish Lutherans (Delaware Valley) (1693), Presbyterians (Carolina) (by 1680).

1692 - Salem witch trials - Crops went untended, cattle uncared for. Accused people who had not yet been arrested gathered up their most portable belongings and fled to New York or beyond. Commerce ground to a snail's pace. The witch trials ended in January 1693. The governor of Massachusetts disturbed when his wife was accused of witchcraft, ended them by appealing to the Boston-area clergy headed by Increase Mather. On October 3, 1692, Increase Mather published "Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits." In it, he stated "It were better that Ten Suspected Witches should escape, than that the Innocent Person should be Condemned." Echoes of this phrase can be found in the US's innocent-until-proven-guilty judicial system.



On to 1694-1829: Enlightenment to the First Democracies