Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture
TIME OUT OF MIND:A CHRONOLOGY FOR THE SIXTIES GENERATION/COUNTERCULTURE
A (BABY BOOMER'S) CHRONOLOGY OF OUR/MODERN TIMES
A HIPPIE HISTORY OF THE SIXTIES
THE EMERGENCE OF THE FIFTH WORLD
Copyright 1993, 2005
Send comments, additions, corrections to: mareev [at] well [dot] com
and please use "sixties" or "timeline" in the e-mail title.
"I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing. . .
It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. . .
God forbid that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion. . ."
Thomas Jefferson (1780)
--- Beginnings to 1879: Feudalism and the Inquisition ---
|Date||Context||Counterculture Events||The Arts||The Period|
Charlemagne enlarges kingdom
by conquering everything within reach
|Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 11: Day 6: Flowering - 829 - 1223|
|750 - 1031||750
Abbasid massacre of the Umayyads in Damascas, Syria;
755 Abd Al-Rahman, son of an Arab and a Moroccan Berber, escapes to al-Andalus, Iberia, & establishes a kingdom at Cordoba.
|1012-1020 - The
first Cathars appear in Limousin.
Their beliefs came originally from Eastern Europe by way of trade routes. The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was also applied to the Albigenses, and they maintained an association with the Bogomils of Thrace. Their doctrines have numerous resemblances to those of the Bogomils (and Paulicians). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathar
|955 Byzantines present caliph of Cordoba with a translation of a Greek medical book, among the many Greek works which were being translated in Baghdad into Arabic.|
caliphate dissolves into some 60 taifas.
capital of Islamic Sicily, falls to invaders.
VI of Castile conquers Islamic taifa of Toledo; 1086 Almoravids from North
Africa arrive and defeat Alfonso.
By 1090, the taifas are all part of a new Almoravid kingdom.
||1109 anti-Almorovid riots in Cordoba following public book-burning of the writings of al-Ghazali, legendary theologian with a humane approach to Islam.||1106 Petrus, a converted Jew, moves to England and writes The Priestly Tales, model for both Chaucer and Boccaccio.||
|1132||Henry I of France grants charters of corporate towns protecting commerce and industry||
1145 Averroes 20
rise of guilds in medieval cities
|1140||Peter Abelard condemned by the
|1142||Peter the Venerable hires an
English explorer to translate into Latin a book from the library of Toledo:
Algebra, a work by al-Khawarizmi, ninth-century scholar of Baghdad.
|1170||Peter (Pierre) Valdes (or Waldo)
of Lyons, merchant, commits his two daughters to the care of a convent,
makes arrangements for his wife's lifelong support, and, having given away
the rest of his fortune, begins to preach in the streets of Lyons (France),
and requests and is granted a translation of the Gospels.
de Flores envisions a progressive (rather than cylical) order of time
(predicts world will end in 1260)
By the early 1300s, the Poor Men of Lyons, followers of Pierre Wald, have spread into Languedoc and northern Italy, and then into Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and even Hungary and Poland. Calling themselves simply "brethren" or "the poor of Christ," Waldensians travel by pairs into the surrounding countryside, penniless and simply dressed. Many cultivated the ability to recite large portions of the Bible from memory. ["The Waldensians are exterminated in a bloody papal crusade in the early 1200s."]
repudiate Catholic doctrines such as purgatory, prayers for the dead, transubstantiation,
and submission to the Pope and prelates. They held to the priesthood of
all believers, denied the Catholic view of apostolic succession, rejected
any form of violence military or legal, and refused to take oaths.
||Second Crusade (1144-1150) to 1500s: Northern Crusades in the Baltic Sea area and in Central Europe were efforts by (mostly German) Christians to subjugate and convert the peoples of these areas to Christianity.|
Crusade sacks Constantinople
crusade against the Cathars (Languedoc)
|1209||Francis of Assisi (Italy) starts his brotherhood (the Franciscans) (he is 27)|
|1210||Episcopal synod in Paris bans the commentaries on Aristotle written by the Cordoban Averroes.|
of the silk route lands by Genghis Khan
|1215||King John of England seals the Magna Carta at Runnymede|
|Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 12: Night 6: Fine tuning - 1223 - 1617|
|1229||The Inquisition in Toulouse forbids Bible reading by all laymen||THE INQUISITION WAS IN FORCE IN SOME PARTS OF EUROPE FROM 1229 to 1808||1200s - Troubadours of Provence introduce the concept of love into their ballads, much based on the music of the Moors of Spain|
captured by Christians; 1238 Valencia; 1248 Seville.
Granada survives as Islamic for another 250 years, until 1492.
|1252||The Inquisition begins to use instruments of torture|
|1255||A new "purged" Aristotle
is being officially taught in Paris;
Paris becomes the center of educated world for 25 years.
House of Commons in Britain
German preacher & mystic (1260-1327)
Commercial and industrial boom in the north and central Italian cities; Florence becomes the leading European city in commerce and finance; beginnings of manufacturing industries; Hanseatic League forms in Germany; Swiss League forms; many European universities founded
With the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291) the last traces of the Christian occupation of Syria disappear.
|1277 Bishop of Paris has condemned 219 propositions of Aristotle that may no longer be taught.|
|1288||Vietnamese resist 500,000 troops of Kublai Khan, culminating in a surprise sinking of the Mongol ships in the Bach Dang River.|
--- 1305: First generation born after the end of the Crusades starts to turn 20 ---
Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).
||Granada - Arab culture still flourishing||1305- :
--- 13xx: First generation born after the start of the Avignon Papacy starts to turn 20 ---
Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).
(England: climate becomes colder & wetter)
|Granada - Arab culture still flourishing||13??-1346:
born 12??-1326 turns 20
1304 - Dante Alighieri (1265-) (39) writes De vulgari eloquentia, his path-breaking history and rhetoric of vernacular literature.
April 6th, 1327 - Petrarch (1304- ) (23), co-founder of humanism, student of the classics, sees Laura for the first time, goes on to write hundreds of sonnets to her
--- 1347: First generation born after xxx starts to turn 20 ---
Death devastates Europe (75 million people, including 1/3 of English population)
1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).
|Granada - Arab culture still flourishing||1347-1351:
born 1327-1331 turns 20
1349-1353: Boccaccio (1313-) (36) (Florence), co-founder of humanism, writes the Decameron, 100 stories told over 10 days by 10 people escaping from the plague.
--- 1352: First generation born after the Black Death starts to turn 20 ---
|1352-73||1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).||Granada - Arab culture still flourishing||
1352-1373: generation (Hero)
born 1332-1353 turns 20
--- 1372: First generation born after the Black Death ends starts to turn 20 ---
|1374||1305-1378 Seven Catholic popes live in Avignon (not Rome).|| England: Rector
John Wyclif(fe) (1330-84) begins to argue for "dominion
founded on grace" - that the right to exercise authority in church
or state and the right to own property are given to men directly from God,
and that they are not given or continued apart from sanctifying grace. Thus,
a man in a state of mortal sin can not lawfully function as an official
of church or state, nor can he lawfully own property. Wycliffe argues that
the Church has fallen into sin and that it ought therefore to give up all
its property and that the clergy should live in complete poverty.
||1374-1402: generation (Artist)
born 1354-1382 turns 20
In 1373 the citizens of Florence choose Boccaccio to give the world's first lecturae Dantis, probably the first lecture series ever dedicated to the exposition of a European vernacular text.
|1377||1378-1417 Papal Schism:Europe splits its allegiance between two Catholic popes.||John
Wycliffe, "Morning star of the Reformation", on trial. King
and Parliament had asked his judgement on whether it was lawful to withhold
traditional payments from Rome, and he responded that it was. The Pope issued
five bulls against him. Wyclif's last political act was in 1378, when he
argued that criminals who had taken sanctuary in churches might lawfully
be dragged out of sanctuary.
starts publishing attacks on corruption in the Church, and also on the doctrine
of transubstantiation (once the Eucharist has been consecrated, the bread
is no longer present in reality, but only in appearance). Wycliffe taught
instead that the bread remains, but that Christ is truly present in the
bread, though not in a material manner. Some of his powerful supporters
could not accept the latter.
England: Peasants Revolt against landlords, under Wat Tyler, thought to be inspired by Wycliffe (John Ball)
Wycliffe makes first major
English translation of Bible (first translation into a European language
in 1000 years); Wyclif is expelled from his teaching position at Oxford,
and his doctrines are condemned by the London synod, and all of his writings
|1387 -1400: Geoffrey Chaucer writes The Canterbury Tales|
itinerant preachers inspired by Wycliffe, roam throughout England, attack
Church corruption, emphasize individual interpretation of the Bible
|1396||Papal Schism||Greek classics start to be taught in Italy --> revival of Greek literature in Italy|
--- 1403: First generation born after Wyclif's writings starts to turn 20 ---
(Florence under the Medici is the center; Leonardo da Vinci)
Enclosures in Britain (1400s- 1500s) - as destructive as these were of country life, they are also said to have forced farming families to move to cities, where they started small trades like weaving, which eventually led to the start of factories and industrialization.
1445-1501: 35,000 books printed in 10 million copies from 1000 offices
|1401 to 1409||Papal Schism to 1417||Wyclif's doctrine
of the Lord's Supper may have spread to Prague as early as 1399, but his
writings are definitely brought to Bohemia in 1401-02. Jan Hus (ca
1369-) ((Prague), a student, is greatly attracted by Wyclif's writings,
particularly by his philosophical realism. Hus believes that the Bible,
not the Catholic church, is the ultimate authority for Christian believers.
King Wenceslaus orders the prelates of the University of Prague to observe neutrality toward the pope.But only the Bohemian nation, with Hus as its spokesman, avows neutrality. Wyclif's ideas gain even wider circulation after prohibited in 1403, as Hus preached and taught them. The doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites, who made it the central point of their system.
1398-1416 - Hussites & Taborites
In 1409, the Pope bans Hus and all Wyclif's writings.
July 6, 1415 - Hus burned at the stake.
1400s - Waldensians, greatly diminished by persecution; remaining followers hide in the alpine valleys of France and Italy, become followers of John Hus.
|1403-1431: generation (Prophet)
born 1383-1411 turns 20
--- 1430s: First generation born after the Papal Schism and Jan Hus starts to turn 20 ---
|1431||First German peasant
revolt at Worms
born 1410-1432 turns 20
1430s Van Eyck
--- 1453: First generation born after xxx starts to turn 20 ---
|1453||Gutenberg prints the bible at
||1453-1480: Arthurian generation
born 1433-1460 turns 20
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)
Villon, poet (Mais
ou sont les neiges d'antan?)
"the first Bohemian" (1431-1463)
|1459 to 1487||CRISIS:
Wars of the Roses
Italy: money loaned at interest to poor people
|1481||Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition under joint direction of the state & the church (Torquemada)||1481-1502:
Humanist generation (Artist)
born 1461-1482 turns 20
Pico della Mirandola (Humanist) (1463-1494),
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527),
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564),
|1493||The first Bundschuh (peasants' revolt) in Alsace & southwestern Germany|
|1501||Moors of Spain defeated||
|1502||Peasants' revolt, Speyer, Germany||
--- 1503: First generation born after Humanism starts to turn 20 ---
|1509||Restart of European slave trade; settlers bring Africans to South America||Michelangelo working on the Sistine chapel 1508-1512|
states that the earth and planets revolve around the sun (1549 objection)
Reformation generation (Prophet)
born 1483-1511 turns 20
|1513||Peasants' revolt: Wurttemberg and Black Forest|
|1514||Peasants' revolt, Hungary
Thomas More: Utopia
(1551 translated from Latin to English)
31 - Martin Luther (24) (1483-1546), inspired by the conservative Hussites,
protests against the Church's sales of indulgences by posting his 95 theses
on the door of the Palast Church, Wittenberg --> Reformation in Germany
against landlords of southern Germany led by Thomas Munzer, founder of the
Anabaptist movement (& Austria) - defeated.
of strength and influence for the Waldensians begins with the introduction
of reform theology into their ranks by Guillaume Farel.
Cellarius, a friend of Luther, is the first literary pioneer of the Unitarian
of Kent riot against Wolsey's policy to move English staple town for wool
from Antwerp to Calais.
Servetus publishes theological treatise: De Trinitatis Erroribus (On the
Errors About the Trinity); the Unitarian movement looks to him as pioneer
and first martyr (burned at the stake 1553).
a conference held at Cianforan in the Piedmont Alps, the Waldensian barbes,
or "uncles", agree to join the budding Swiss Protestant movement.
Reprisal generation (Nomad)
born 1512-1540 turns 20
|1534 `||Communist state'
of Anabaptists under leadership of John of Leiden at Munster, Westphalia.
|1536||First European newspaper: Gazetta, Venice||Church of England
separates from the Pope
Jean Calvin (26) (a Frenchman in exile in Geneva) publishes several revisions of his Institutes of the Christian Religion a seminal work in Christian theology in Latin and then in his native French in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 and 1560, respectively.
|1539||Poland: Catherine (80), wife of Melchior Vogel or Weygel, burned at Cracow for apostasy, deism.|
makes first predictions
Waldensians had decided to build their own churches, which earned them concentrated persecution from the Duke of Savoy. They took up arms for the first time. The Duke finally relented and allowed the dissenters the right of existence and worship within a certain limited area. This was the first such war and victory in Europe.
Other communities of Waldensians experienced persecution well into the 19th century, when full civil rights were finally granted them across Europe.
emigrated to Uruguay in the late 1800s, and from there to the United States,
where they werejoined by other Waldensians from Europe. Small communities
were established in Missouri, Texas, and Utah, where many Mormons today
still bear Waldensian surnames. Their strongest presence is found in the
town of Valdese, North Carolina, whose population of 3000 is still largely
/ Puritans (England)
|1566||Calvinist rebellion in Netherlands; Inquisition there abolished||1561-1585: Elizabethan generation (Hero) born 1541-1565 turns 20|
Native Americans in South America die of typhoid fever
day massacre, Paris - 10,000 French Huguenots (Protestants) killed by order
of French rulers.
|1579||CRISIS: Spanish Armada 1569-1594||Spain: St. John
of the Cross: born 1542, having made the acquaintance of St. Teresa, inaugurates
reform among friars, 1568. The reform spread rapidly.
Ordered to return to the house of his profession, he refused, owing to the fact that he held his office not from the order but from the Apostolic delegate; taken prisoner1577, where he suffered for more than nine months close imprisonment in a narrow, stifling cell, with additional punishment. In the midst of his sufferings he was visited with heavenly consolations, and some of his exquisite poetry dates from that period. Escaped 1578, and soon after wrote "The Dark Night of the Soul". His works first appear at Barcelona in 1619.
Parliamentarian generation (Artist) born 1566-1587 turns 20
Spensor: The Faerie Queene - long, dense allegory, in the epic form, of
Christian virtues, tied into England's mythology of King Arthur.
Virginia colony starts the colonization
of North America
science, European wars, witch trials, dueling, slaving
|1612||Last recorded burning of heretics in England|
|1615||Galileo faces the Inquisition
for the first time
Mayan Sacred Calendar: National Underworld: Heaven 13: Day 7: Fruition - 1617 - October 28, 2011
fleeing Europe to be able to practice their faith, settle near Plymouth,
Massachusetts. Followed later by the Puritans
(Massachusetts Bay ), Dutch Reformed Church & French Huguenots
Most settlers in the American Mid-Atlantic and New England were Calvinists, including the Puritans and Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam (New York). Dutch Calvinist settlers were also the first successful European colonizers of South Africa, beginning in the 17th century, who became known as Boers or Afrikaners.
Puritan generation (Prophet)
born 1588-1617 turns 20
1608-1648: Paris Salon of Mme. de Rambouillet (first famous French salon)
|Transylvania: new sect, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies, arises (maintained an existence till 1848). (origins of Unitarian Church)|
|1631||First French newspaper: The Gazette de France|
John Lilburne (approx. 24), or "Free born John," arrested by Church
officials for distributing banned literature, whipped, pilloried, fined
and thrown into prison. He smuggled out "A Worke of the Beast, or a
relation of a most unchristian censure, executed upon J. Lilburne".
After release in 1640, he joined the New Model Army, and was a founder of
the Leveller movement.
The term unitarius is officially adopted by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.
- Cavalier generation (Nomad)
born 1618-1647 turns 20
(1596-1650): Meditations on First Philosophy: In Which the Existence of
God and the Distinction Between Mind and Body are Demonstrated published
in Latin; translated into French 1642. Descartes
insisted on a radical philosophy that dispensed, as far as possible, with
|1646||English Civil War ("first") (to 1650)||England: "A
Remonstrance of many Thousand Citizens" by Richard Overton (15, a Dutch
refugee & London printer) establishes the Leveller movement.
Charles I coined the derogatory name Leveller ("endeavor to cast down
and level the enclosures of nobility, gentry, and property, to make us all
even"). Levellers preached social equality and democracy; organized
at a chapter level; meetings held at local taverns. The chapters were run
democratically, a new concept.
|1647||English Civil War continues||Levellers
gain support among the rank and file unit representatives ("Agitators")
of the New Model Army, a large volunteer army of the English people organized
against the pro-Royalist and pro-Presbyterian members of the Long Parliament.
The Case of the Army Truly Stated (1647) outlined their concerns to obtain basic human/labour rights for the common soldier and input into the Army Council, the first "workers rights" demands in England.
Dec: Putney Debates - famous debate before the General Army Council to discuss this demand for rights pitted Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell against his friend and later son-in-law.
Civil War -
Many people were without jobs, business, or homes.Crops yields were poor. Food was scarce and expensive. Many people were starving and dying.
of Friends (Quakers) founded by George Fox (24), who felt that neither
outward profession of religion, nor learning, nor church-going is enough.
From about 1648 he went out into the world challenging all that was merely
conventional. He refused to doff his hat, bow or follow the usual social
courtesies. He refused to use worldly titles or to take oaths. He attacked
churches, calling them 'steeple-houses', and priests, since none could stand
between man and God - a refusal to pay tithes. He opposed war and preached
truth and love. He was arrested, imprisoned, beaten, persecuted; yet he
never returned violence for violence.
1648-16450 - Many common folks (some called "Diggers") started to farm the Commons of England for food.
Gerrard Winstanley, a merchant tailor in London, like others lost everything during the Civil War & was now reduced to herding livestock while living with his wife's relatives at Cobham, Surrey. Intelligent and well read, he began to write religious and social pamphlets.
Digger communities were being established at Dunstable (Bedfordshire), Iver (Buckinhhamshire), Barnet (Hamptonshire), Cox Hill (Kent?), Bosworth (Leicestershire), Entfield (Middlesex), Wellingborough (Northhamptonshire), & possibly also in Gloucestershire and Nottinghamshire.
Dec. 1648 (Digger tract) Light Shining in Buckinghamshire.
The Agreement of the People (Leveller pamphlet)
Dec. 1648 - Pride's Purge. Soldiers of the New Model Army oust the Royalist supporters and the Presbyterian majority from Parliament, ushering in the smaller Rump Parliament (1648-53).
Civil War (to 1650):
The Rump Parliament which the New Model Army had helped to create executes Charles I January 1649, and then starts to consolidate its power and authority.
March: More Light Shining in
Buckinghamshire (second Buckinghamshire Digger tract).
The Levellers were the first social democrats in English history. Many of the Levellers reforms and social democratic principles and concerns would not see fruit for over 200 years, including their message of toleration for others, and compassion for the needy.
But, unlike the Surrey Diggers who wanted a new society, the Levellers pursued moderate changes for the benefit of a new growing "working middle class".
|1650||Despite the harsh
winter of 1649-50, which was especially severe, the crops were doing well
on Cobham Heath, with 11 acres under cultivation & 6-7 shelters.
March: small military detachment dispatched to Cobham Heath.
With pending legal actions against the Surrey Diggers, and their diminishing financial resources, the Surrey Diggers quietly disbanded their community by July.
Leveller leaders released except for Lilburne, charged with treason and inciting the populous. Leveller supporters overflow the courts. Judges and other local officials in London fear for their lives during the trial and there is fear of civil anarchy. Liliburne acquitted & exiled to Belgium. The Leveller movement is crushed.
|1653||Peasants' revolt, Switzerland
|1660||England: the Restoration||
Cafe Procope opens in Paris
late to mid 1700s
dead period in art (court portraits, art)
1660s, 1670s Vermeer
|1663||First English newspaper: The Public Intelligencer|
|1665||Isaac Newton experiments on
minute hands on watches
CRISIS: Colonial Glorious Revolution 1675-1704
Locke (1632-1704) proposes a radical conception of political philosophy
deduced from the principle of self-ownership and the corollary right to
own property, which in turn is based on his famous claim that a man earns
ownership over a resource when he mixes his labour with it. Government,
he argues, should be limited to securing the life and property of its citizens,
and is only necessary because in an ideal, anarchic state of nature, various
problems arise that would make life more insecure than under the protection
of a minimal state. Locke is also renown for his writings on toleration
in which he espoused the right to freedom of conscience and religion (except
when religion was deemed intolerant!), and for his cogent criticism of hereditary
monarchy and patriarchalism.
Glorious generation (Hero)
born 1648-11673 turns 20
religious groups emigrate to North America: Quakers (Pennsylvania 1682),
Swedish Lutherans (Delaware Valley) (1693),
Presbyterians (Carolina) (by
1692 - Salem witch trials - Crops went untended, cattle uncared for. Accused people who had not yet been arrested gathered up their most portable belongings and fled to New York or beyond. Commerce ground to a snail's pace. The witch trials ended in January 1693. The governor of Massachusetts disturbed when his wife was accused of witchcraft, ended them by appealing to the Boston-area clergy headed by Increase Mather. On October 3, 1692, Increase Mather published "Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits." In it, he stated "It were better that Ten Suspected Witches should escape, than that the Innocent Person should be Condemned." Echoes of this phrase can be found in the US's innocent-until-proven-guilty judicial system.
On to 1694-1829: Enlightenment to the First Democracies