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--- Counterculture Timeline: 1830 to 1879: Democracy Adjusted ---

--- 1830s first generation to grow up after the defeat of Napoleon's Europe enters their 20s ---
Creativity continues on into the succeeding generation
Date   Context   Counterculture Events   The Arts   The Period
Second Great Awakening
1822-1844 continues
  Feb 25 Victor Hugo's Romantic Army formed at opening of his play Hermani at Theatre-Francais, Paris. They call themselves "Young France". Hugo was 28 (1802-1885).

6,000 Parisians die in revolution barricades ending the post-Napoleonic Bourbon restoration

1830s: abolitionist movement

  Ladies skirts grow shorter; sleeves and hats larger;
men begin to wear stiff collars

Louis Hector Berlioz (1803–1869): Symphonie fantastique first performed
1831   New monarchy in France   Summer - Hugo's followers (including poets Nerval, Gautier & Borel) [inspired by Byron] camp in tents around isolated rented Montmartre house, sleep on animal skins, and go naked, emitting animal howls; neighbors get landlord to drive them out

Virginia slave revolt led by Negro Nat Turner

Lyons, France uprisings by working class against wretched conditions

Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to popular reforms

  Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) (21) moves to Paris, where he became friends with painter Eugène Delacroix, composers Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt and Robert Schumann.    
1832       June 5-6 The poor of Paris, with their romantic allies, revolt against the new monarchy

Parisian Saint-Simonian newspaper coins the word "socialism"

Mass demonstrations in Germany

Nat Turner's Rebellion (see 1831 xx)

New England Anti-Slavery Society founded, Boston

1833       Four Parisian artists, Gautier, Nerval, Houssaye, & Rogier create the first Bohemian house

  Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850): Eugénie Grandet - prototype of the modern novel


Mayan Sacred Calendar: Planetary Underworld: Heaven 5: Day 3: Sprouting - 1834 - 1854

1834   Slavery abolished in the British colonies           1830s - US abolition of slavery movement; women (unable to vote) are strongly involved; some anti-slavery petitions are signed by all women
1835   First negative photograph   Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy in America
(published in Paris; published in US 1838)

"The expression "art for art's sake" comes into general use" (??? see 1840s)

  Hans Christian Anderson (1805-75) starts publishing fairy tales

Frederic Chopin meets George Sand in Paris

1835- 42       Seminoles second war against the U.S. to avoid deportation and repel encroachment

1836   Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte tries to bring about a revolt of the French? garrison at Strasbourg and is banished to America

Electric telegraph invented by Wheatstone

  Working class movement, Chartism, founded in U.K. demand universal suffrage and vote by ballot

  Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) (33): Nature - expresses the philosophy of Transcendentalism - there is an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through a knowledgeable intuitive awareness that is conditional upon the individual. Essentially, the ability to perceive the spiritual, because you "feel" it.  
1837   Financial and economic panic in eastern U.S. (+?) depression - revivals

1837- 1848 First modern industrial depression (U.K.)

1838   Depression (U.K.)

Cherokees sent on the Trail of Tears

      Frederic Chopin's winter with George Sand on Majorca 1838-1839  
1839   Depression (U.K.)

Daguerre invents his camera and takes first photograph

First bicycle;

First electric clock;

Goodyear: vulcanization

Britain starts Opium War with China

  Voyage en Icarie by Etienne Cabet (1788-1856)
(?describes socialist utopia) - influenced by Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Owen, Babeuf

Louis Blanc: L'Organisation du Travail
("to each according to his needs, from each according to his abilities")

Balzac uses the word "bohemian" for the first time to describe the new spontaneous, creative spirit
1840   Depression (U.K.)

Penny post commences, England

1840s: Repeal of the Corn Laws and Navigation Acts. Free trade opened the British market to competition.

  Albert Brisbane: The Social Destiny of Man
(follower of Fourier) published in U.S.

Pierre Joseph Proudhon: "Property is theft"

Women delegates to an antislavery convention in England are hidden behind a screen on a balcony &
forbidden to participate; among them are Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

1841   Depression (U.K.)

First university degrees granted to women in America

Travel agent Thomas Cook arranges his first excursion - to a temperance meeting in England

Christ, Gothic, & Murger (Paris artists?) form a Bohemian cenacle, The Society of the Water Drinkers, living in poverty for art, often visited by the older Hugolaters

U.S.S. "Creole" slave revolt

Community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts (became Fourierest) 1841-47

  Punch - first regular humor magazine, U.K.    

"the generation of the 1840s" = Baudelaire, Flaubert, Wagner, Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Marx
[page 88 - All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity - Marshell Berman 1982]

1842   Depression (U.K.)
Britain wins Opium War, forcing Chinese to accept opium instead of silver as payment for tea and silk
  Britain: Chartism, working-class movement for universal manhood suffrage and the secret ballot, stages general strike, enforced throughout the industrial north by ragged workers armed with clubs, pikes, and pitchforks

  Polka comes into fashion

Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892) (33): The Lady of Shalott
1843   Depression (U.K.)
U. S. Congress funds Morse to build first telegraph line (Washington to Baltimore)
  First Amana commune (Ebenezer, NY) (re-organized to share-holder community May 1932; still continuing)

First Fourierist community founded in U.S. (is this Brook Farm??)

Dorothea Dix reports shocking conditions in Massachusetts prisons and asylums

Samuel C.S. Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy (1755-1843)


Dickens: A Christmas Carol

Sunday drumming & dancing gatherings of ?slaves? in Congo Square, New Orleans, terminated by city authorities;
rituals taken into the church (?gradually)

"The Bohemian Girl" - London, Drury Lane


"The hungry 40s" in England as the depression continues

also rapid industrialisation
1844   Depression (U.K.)

YMCA founded, England
  Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers (co-operative)

New England Transcendentalists: Brook Farm community reshapes itself into a Fourierist organization.

Karl Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris

  Alexandre Dumas:
The Three Musketeers
1845   Depression (U.K.)   Friedrich Engels: The Conditions of the Working Class in England", published in Leipzig   July 4 - Henry David Thoreau (28) moves to Walden Pond

Alexandre Dumas: The Count of Monte Cristo (1845–1846)

Richard Wagner: Tannhäuser

  1840s - Hashish introduced into Bohemian Paris by Gautier and others

1840s -
Gautier and Flaubert develop idea of "art for art's sake," while meanwhile the circle around Auguste Comte constructed the concept of "pure science".

1840s - Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania pass laws limiting hours of employment of minors in textile factories

Chartist movement builds nearly 300 cottages in five settlements for supporters who wish to become independent smallholders
1846   Depression (U.K.)

Start of Irish potato: blight famine: 5 million die 1847-52;
from 1850-60 914,000 emigrate to U. S.

Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe

      Thoreau lives at Walden Pond (at Emerson's invitation, and fifteen minutes from his family)  
1847   Depression (U.K.)   British Factory Act restricts the working day for women, and children 13 to 18 - to 10 hours

  Thoreau lives at Walden Pond (26 months)

Emily Bronte:Wuthering Heights
Charlotte Bronte: Jane Eyre (gothic romances)


-- 1848-1860: first generation to grow up after the Paris revolt of 1830 reaches their 20s:
In 1848, Gustave Moreau was 22 (when was art?), Jules Verne 20 --


Discovery of gold in California starts the gold rush

End of first modern industrial depression (U.K.)

France's growing middle class, fearing the lower classes, elects Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon, as president of Second Republic.


[First European war since 1815 & until 1914]
Revolts against kings and empires in Vienna, Venice, Berlin, Milan, Parma, Rome, Hungary;
& Paris: Revolution by Parisian poor; 25,000 killed; socialist bourgeois republic created (lasts two months); students man the baricades In Paris & Vienna

George Sand starts republican newspaper

Oneida commune with complex marriage founded in upstate New York (to 1881) by John Humphrey Noyes

First socialist/Icarian community founded in U.S. (Icaria); Red River, Texas, with 69 people; lasts 3 months; moves to Illinois, then Missouri, Iowa

Marx (30) and Engels (28): Communist Manifesto

John Stuart Mill (42): Principles of Political Economy - reflections on the difference between what economics measured and what human beings really valued: leading Mill to argue that we should sacrifice economic growth for the sake of the environment, and should limit population as much to give ourselves breathing space as in order to fend off the risk of starvation for the overburdened poor.

July 19 - Seneca Falls, New York - women's rights manifesto, Elizabeth Cady Stanton demands the right to vote.

First Public Health Act in Britain

  September - Dante Gabriel Rossetti 20, John Everett Millais 19, and William
Holman Hunt 21, found Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, U.K. (1850-1920)

Other Pre-Raphaelites: William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens, Thomas Woolner

Richard Wagner: Lohengrin

Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.

1848-9 Murger publishes chapters from "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme", which is translated into many languages - read it here
Gilded generation
born 1822-1842 turns 20

(Hero generation is missing)
1849       Revolts in Dresden and Baden;
German National Assembly passes constitution

Most revolts put down and old regimes back in power.

Icarian colony founded Nauvoo, Illinois (450 acres, 260-500+ people); lasted to 1860

  Thoreau (32): On the Duty of Civil Disobedience    
1850   Half of U.K. living in cities [Utne 38-80]   The Vegetarian Society founded, Manchester

First national women's rights convention held Worcester, Mass., in 1850

  January - London: (?Pre-Raphaelites start) first avant garde art magazine, The Germ   In the 1850s an underground druidic movement was in full swing in England and France. The United Order of the Ancient Druids adopted Masonic rites and tried to resurrect druidic customs such as the culling of the mistletoe by a young priestess in a white robe. [Creating Collete page 59]
1851   First World's Fair - London   Ruskin: The Stones of Venice (man can only be free if he is being creative, and industrialism destroys this) (1851-1853)

1851 Sojourner Truth, speaking at a women's covention in Akron, Ohio: "Ain't I a Woman?"

1852   Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte declares himself emperor of France   Victor Hugo opposes Bonaparte's declaration and flees into exile

First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets, London

(1852?) Icarian colony founded - Corning, southwest Iowa (1860-1878)

1853   Haussman begins redesign of Paris, creating boulevards through lower class areas for ease of moving the army around and to keep the middle classes from moving out

Perry to Japan

Crimean War begins: Florence Nightingale introduces sanitation in military hospitals

  Saltaire model village built, northeast of Manchester, England  

William Morris starts Exeter college, meets Edward Burne-Jones; they form "The Brotherhood" and are interested in poetry (not yet painting); they have long hair and observe late hours, unrestrained friendliness; they discuss John Ruskin's Modern Painters; Burne-Jones sees Rossetti's work, meets him, and Rossetti gets Burne-Jones to start painting


Mayan Sacred Calendar: Planetary Underworld: Heaven 6: Night 3: Assimilation - 1854 - 1873

1854   "War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states

First street-poster pillars erected in Berlin
  1855 James Whistler (21), American artist, is one of many artists who flow into Paris after having read Murger's accounts   Thoreau (37): Walden, or Life in the Woods

Japan opened up to international commerce1853; Japanese objects appear in Europe.
1855       Lucy Stone marries abolitionist Henry Blackwell but does not change her last name; women's rights activists become known as "Lucy Stoners"

  Walt Whitman (36):
Leaves of Grass
1857   US-wide depression, & economic crisis throughout Europe, caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares

Indian Mutiny against the British East India Company, which had held control for 100 years; known to many Indians as the First War of Independence; the Company collapsed and Britain took over as direct ruler.

Pasteur shows that fermentation is caused by living organisms
  Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) founded

  Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867): "Les Fleurs du mal" (Symbolist) [Paul Verlaine 1844-1896 also Symbolist - poet maudit = sex & drug excesses - get more xx]

New Orleans legalizes licensed prostitutes

1858       Icarian colony - Cheltenham 1858-1864   First section of Olmsted's design for New York's Central Park opens

1859   Darwin's Origin of the Species published

Internal combustion engine invented

First self-help manual published (how to succeed in life)
  John Stuart Mill (1806-73): On Liberty

1859? - Harpers Ferry (rebellion) (John Brown?)
  Richard Wagner: Tristan und Isolde    

-- first generation to grow up during the revolts of 1848 reaches their 20s:
In 1860: Dore & Manet & Lewis Carroll 28, Burne-Jones 27, Morris & Degas & Whistler & Rousseau 26,
Mark Twain 25, Ramakrishna 24, Cezanne 21, Monet & Renoir & Rodin & Emile Zola 20 --
1861   Confederate states secede; U.S. Civil War starts at Fort Sumpter in April

U.S. introduces passport system

Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation

First horse-drawn trams in London and first daily weather broadcasts in Britain
      U.K.: William Morris (27), fresh from Oxford studying architecture with G. E. Street, starts design firm in London leading to the birth of the Arts and Crafts movement, a reformation of the decorative arts; Morris and Burne-Jones move into rooms in Red Lion Square; Rossetti gets Morris to start painting

Paul Cezanne (22) arrives in Paris

American Civil War
(not applicable in the rest of the world)
1862   U.S.: Homestead Act opens free land for pioneers

Founding of Red Cross proposed by Swiss humanist Dunant
  Rossetti's Lizzy Siddal dies; Rossetti moves to Cheyne Walk and paints Beata Beatrix, but stops doing Arthurian subjects and breaks with Ruskin; he collected animals, painted women, and drank  

Victor Hugo: Les Miserables

Can-can becomes the rage in Paris (1860s)

August 11 - Sarah Bernhardt's first performance, in the Comédie Française (17)

1863   U.S.: first Federal conscription (for the Civil War) (including $300 buy-out)

London begins constructing Underground railroad

U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
  July five days: New York City Draft Riots, 105 killed, many of them Negro (lynchings) - protest first Federal conscription   Paris: Paintings turned down by the official Salon exhibeted in the "Salon de Refusés", including Edouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass, works by Pissarro, Whistler, Fantin-Latour, Cézanne
  1863-1879 Progressive generation (Artist) born 1843-1859
turns 20
1864   1863-1864: 8000 Navajos captured by Kit Carson and interned for four years in New Mexico, then sent to a reservation

Massacre of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand Creek, Colo.
  Mark Twain (29) arriving in San Francisco, finds a vigorous literary movement called The Bohemians

First International Workingmen's Association founded by Karl Marx, London and New York

Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
  Dostoevsky: Notes From the Underground

Tolstoi: War and Peace
1865   U.S. Civil War ends

Atlantic cable completed

First oil pipeline (in Pennsylvania)

Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.

First train holdup (North Bend, Ohio)

1700 die in explosion of "Sultana", Mississippi River

First carpet sweeper

  Thirteenth amendment to US Constitution abolishes slavery. Many freed blacks turn to farming, xxx, & music (minstrel shows, etc.)

Commons Preservation Society founded, U.K.

First railroad sleeping cars (designed by Pullman), U.S. - provide jobs for newly-free Negroes

Edouard Manet's Olympia exhibited

Lewis Carroll: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Gustave Moreau painting (1826-1898) Symbolist painter (France) - (Matisse and Roualt were among his pupils)

1866   London's first department store

"Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange

      1866-67 Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment    
1867   First socialist member of North German Reichstag elected

first bicycles manufactured (France?)

reinforced concrete patented

gold discovered in Wyoming

Paris Universal Exposition

  Marx: Das Kapital vol. 1

Baudelaire dies, the last of the old crowd?
  Paris Universal Exposition introduces Japanese art to the west and much more

Straus: "Blue Danube" waltz

Mark Twain: The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
1868   plastic celluloid invented

Nobel invents dynamite

  Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la democratie sociale (Russian anarchist, inspired by Basque self-reliant hill communities).   Painters begin to paint in Impressionist style:
Claude Monet (28): The River

[what about Gustave Courbet 1819-77 ? xxx]
  End of Shogunate civil wars in Japan, establishment of
16 year old Meiji emperor, Japan starts to modernize.
1868-1873: "Eijanaika" = "Who Cares" breakouts all over Japan (??)
1869   Golden spike joins the west coast of U.S. to the east

First postcards, Austria

Carbon paper patented

Thomas Edison (22), penniless in New York, strikes it rich by inventing a stock ticker

British debtors' prisons abolished
  U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago

Red River Rebellion in Canada

John Stuart Mill: On The Subjection of Women

Knights of Labor formed by six former members of the Garment Cutters' Association of Philadelphia - after 1872 grew into the first national US union

  Bret Harte: The Outcasts of Poker Flat    
1840-1870 Population of Paris nearly doubled: restaurants, cafes, theaters, hotels, department stores

Between the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Britain was the world's sole industrialised power, with over 30% of the global industrial output in 1870. As the "workshop of the world", Britain could produce finished manufactures so efficiently and cheaply that they could undersell comparable locally produced goods in foreign markets.
By the1870s, British manufactures in the staple industries began to experience real competition abroad.

----1873-79: first generation to grow up during the return to normalcy after the revolts of 1848 reaches their 20s:
Van Gogh 1853, Freud 1856, Shaw 1856, Baden-Powell 1857, Seurat 1859 --
1870   January - Louis Napoleon dismisses Haussman;
August - goes to war with Prussia;
September 2 - loses war to Prussia; siege of Paris by Prussia

"Old Europe disappeared"
writes Henry Adams

  Revolt in Paris and proclamation of Third Republic:
mid-March - radical government (Commune) established & Paris taken over
May - revolt put down by government troops

U.K.: Education Act ?establishes public education? ---> literacy of masses [when established in US?]
  Jules Verne: Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870?)   1870s: U.K. agricultural depression: many move to cities

1870s: Feminist Victoria Woodhull announced from a New York stage "I am a free lover!". She was ejected from the socialist and feminist movements.

Women start to find work in medicine, law, teaching, offices, factories, social work and reform.
1871   Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man

First large modern luxury ocean liner launched


Parisians declare independence from France: people's government, the Commune, holds Paris for two months

Fors Clavigera: Ruskin's anti-industry letters (explain) xxx

Boss Tweed's fall, New York City


Arthur Rimbaud (17) arrives in Paris

Charles L. Dodgson: Through the Looking Glass

1872       First International Conference [of Socialism] the Hague: Russian anarchist Michael Bakunin defeated & expelled by Karl Marx

Six weeks of strikes in three of New York City's major industries ---> first eight-hour-day rule adopted in US - in New York City

Susan Anthony arrested for illegally votes in the presidential election
  January 16 - Sarah Bernhardt becomes a star as the Queen of Spain in Victor Hugo's Ruy Blas, at the Odéon in Paris

Cezanne and Pissarro at Auvers-sur-Oise

Rossetti tries to commit suicide, but falls in love with Morris's wife, Jane (Burden) Morris

Jules Verne: Around the World in 80 Days

Samuel Butler (1835-1902): Erewhon (explain) xxx


Mayan Sacred Calendar: Planetary Underworld: Heaven 7: Day 4: Proliferation - 1873 - 1893

1873   Normalcy returns to France; many of Haussman's projects finished

Financial panic in Vienna (May) and New York (Sept); US depression starts with closing of Jay Cooke's banking house, lasts to 1877; "Long depression" (to 1896) in Britain - price deflation punctuated by severe business downturns, due to competition from other countries which were catching up in industrialization.

Three men in DeKalb, Illinois invent barbed wire [WER #73 p 41]

      Rimbaud (19) writes A Season in Hell (couldn't afford to pay printer, so it stayed in the cellar of the print shop until 1901 or 1902)

US: Comstock Law - officially known as the Federal Anti-Obscenity Act - bans the mailing of "lewd", "indecent", "filthy", or "obscene" materials.

All of west goes on the gold standard (1870s to 1930s) [when did Henry Adams say US accepted it?]

1870s to start of World War II - industrializing nations colonize the third world.
1874   US: Gold discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota in Sioux territory

First Remington typewriter (hardly noticed)
  First Hutterites (350-year-old European communal group) immigrate to U.S., found communes which still exist (in 1983: 33,000 members in 300 settlements, 100 of them in US)

Tompkins Square, New York City - riot
  First impressionist exhibition, Paris (named after Monet's painting: "Impression: Sunrise")

Degas stops exhibiting at the Salon, displays with the Impressionists (Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro)

James Whistler (living in U.K.): "Nocturne in Black & Gold"

  Olmsted redesigns Capitol Hill in
Washington D. C.
1875   Thousands swarm into the Black Hills (in violation of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie between the Sioux and the US)   First California community, Fountain Grove, founded, 2 miles north of Santa Rosa, California by Swedenborgians (700 -> 1700 acres) (to 1900)

1875-6 Workers attending Mutual Improvement Class, Sheffield, UK, decide to call themselves communist and to start communal farm: St. George's Farm
  Theosophical Society founded by Helena Blavatsky, N.Y.

Mary Baker Eddy: Science and Health
1876   March 17 Custer attacks a Sioux/Cheyenne camp on the Powder River.

June 25 Sioux and Cheyenne defeat and kill Custer (31) at the battle of Little Bighorn.

First planned railway suburb: Bedford Park, west London

Edison opens laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey

Alexander Graham Bell ["& Edison"] invents telephone ["1877-1878"]

      Renoir: La Moulin de la Galette    

Depths of the depression

First public telephones (U.S.)

Thomas Alva Edison invents phonograph

  Railroad workers strike in a dozen U.S. cities from Martinsburg, West Virginia to Pittsburgh (100 killed, 1000 injured), American Socialist Labor Party formed, first Farmers Alliance formed
---> Compromise of 1877: Southern electoral votes support Republican Presidential candidate (Hayes) in return for financial aid and continuation of the Southern power structure

UK: William Morris gets involved in politics as a Socialist

UK: Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings founded


Monet: Gare Saint-Lazare

Third impressionist exhibition, Paris

Grosvenor Gallery opens in London, exhibiting French painting and English avant-garde painting (Whistler)

1878   Microphone invented by David E. Hughes

First bicycles in U.S. manufactured (A.A. Pope)

Sir Joseph Wilson Swan demonstrated incandescent bulb in London

First use of electricity: street lighting - London

Forced to surrender, those members of the Cheyenne tribe left alive were forced to live on a reservation on the Tongue River in Montana.

  New Icaria colony founded (to 1898); Jeune Icarie colony founded (to 1886)

Haymarket (rebellion)

  First popular musical comedy?? Gilbert & Sullivan: H.M.S. Pinafore    
1879       Henry George: Progress and Poverty  


On to The Progressive Period: 1880-1913