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Counterculture Timeline: The Early Sixties: Folk Music and Idealism 1960-1963
    1945-1962 Silent generation (Artist) born 1925-1942 continues to turn 20  




military budget 45.8 billion, 49.7% of U.S. budget

what year? Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) formed - League for Industrial Democracy student department (origially from the Intercollegiate Socialist Society of 1905 - first president Jack London; members: Upton Sinclair, John Reed, Walter Lippman, and Young People's Socialist League)

"Between 1957 and Feb. 1, 1960, there have been sit-ins in 16 cities."

January 4 - Albert Camus (47) killed in a car crash outside Paris. The incomplete manuscript of The First Man, the autobiographical novel that Camus was working on, was found in the mud at the accident site and published by his daughter in 1995. Camus hoped that it would be his masterpiece and some critics think it is, even unfinished.


Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini,
Are You Lonesome Tonight? (Elvis Presley i.e. It's Now or Never)
Green Fields
*Everly Brothers: Cathy's Clown
Drifters: Save the Last Dance for Me
Shirelles: Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?
Kathy Young and the Innocents: A Thousand Stars in the Sky
Hank Ballard: Finger Poppin' Time
& original version of The Twist
Chubby Checker, 19, records The Twist
The Ventures: Walk Don't Run

[from Rhino catalog:]
Tossin' and Turnin' / Runaway / Blue Moon / Please Mr. Postman / Mother-in-Law / The Shirelles: Will You Love Me Tomorrow / The Lion Sleeps Tonight / Bobby Vee: Take Good Care of My Baby / Quarter to Three

Joan Baez first album (on Vanguard)
Tom Lehrer Revisited album
July - Tom Lehrer gives final performance

Under the influence of Sean O'Riada, eight musicians meet in Ireland to form the Ceoltoiri Chualann; five of them later form the Chieftains.

60 television sets:
US 85 million;
Britain 10.5 million;
West Germany 2 million;
France 1.5 million

TV: The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, My Three Sons, Andy Griffith Show, Alfred Hitchcock Presents,
Ed Sullivan, Father Knows Best (final year), I've Got a Secret, Perry Mason, The Twilight Zone

Jean Paul Belmondo -&- Godard first, Breathless - U.S. hit
Hiroshima Mon Amour [1959]
Never on Sunday
Big Deal on Madonna Street
(Psycho: Hitchcock; The Alamo with John Wayne;
The Apartment with Jack Lemmon;
Butterfield 9 with Elizabeth Taylor;
Can-Can with Frank Sinatra & Shirley MacLaine;
Cinderfella with Jerry Lewis;
Elmer Gantry with Burt Lancaster;
Spartacus with Kirk Douglas)
Last Year at Marienbad - Alain Resnais
Lisa and David

Paul Goodman: Growing Up Absurd
Black Like Me: John Howard Griffin
John Updike: Rabbit, Run
Allen Watts: Beat Zen, Square Zen, & Zen
Kerouac: Visions of Cody,
Kerouac: The Scripture of Golden Eternity
Ginsberg: Kaddish
To Kill a Mockingbird - Harper Lee
John Barth: The Sotweed Factor
Summerhill: A Radical Approach to Child Rearing - A.S. Neill

"Major poetry-world shaker",
The New American Poetry (edited by Donald M. Allen)

UK: Eddie Cochran, r&r, favorite of the Teddy Boys
, dies

Lord Buckley records "Bad-Rapping of the Marquis de Sade" at the Gold Nugget in Oakland, California

March - Jean Tinguely (Swiss) - kinetic motion machine "junk sculpture" entitled "Homage to New York" is allowed to destroy itself in the garden of the New York Museum of Modern Art

Pop Art emerges (Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, Andy Warhol);
+ first public show of work by Robert Rauschenberg

Feb 1   Greensboro, N. Car.: first day of Woolworth counter "sit-in" by four freshmen college students from North Carolina A & T (Joseph McNeil, 18; Ezell Blair, Jr; Franklin McCain; and David Richmond) (after 16 similar demonstrations in the previous 3 years); [teachers: *Douglas Moore, George Thomas] arrests include: Diane Nash, John Lewis, James Bevel; by February 2, they are joined by 25 others; by February 5, by over 300.

Feb 13   France becomes the fourth nuclear power

Feb 16
  Civil rights sit-in's have spread to 15 cities in North & South Carolina, Florida, Virginia, & Tennessee; by February's end, 31 Southern cities in 8 states

Feb   Media discovers that Tennessee Negro sharecroppers who have been evicted from their farms for registering to vote are forming "Freedom Village" tent cities

March   Montgomery, Alabama: denied ability to join sit-ins for fear of jeopardizing the state support of their college; half the student body of Alabama State sing "The Star-Spangled Banner" on the state capitol steps & march back to campus; their leaders are expelled.

Civil rights sit-in's at lunch counters in northern cities; also in 40 new cities in Georgia, West Virginia., Texas, Arkansas

  Elvis Presley leaves army after end of service

March 19   South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre (at new pass law demo): police open fire on South Africans burning id. cards; 63 shot in the back, 13,000 jailed; African National Congress (ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) banned; Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe, founding president of the Pan Africanist Congress, sent to prison.

About 11 African countries gain their independence from April 1960 - April 1961

Apr 2-3   Nearly 100 student sit-in'rs from 19 states attend workshop at Highlander School; Guy Carawan teahces them 1930s labor songs: We Shall Not Be Moved, Keep Your Eyes on the Prize, This Little Light of Mine, We Shall Overcome

April 8   Odetta at Carnegie Hall

by April

mid April
  Sit-ins in 54 cities in nine states [Gitlin]

50,000 students have participated in sit-ins [Democracy Is In The Streets]

Apr 15   Nearly 150 students from nine states meet in North Carolina with Ella Baker, James Lawson & MLK & form SNCC ("April 17")

Apr 21   Senate passes Civil Rights Act

Apr 28   Alan Haber & SLID/SDS host first conference on Human Rights at the University of Michigan; Farmer & Harrington speak

April   California: Protests against the death sentence for Caryl Chessman (executed May 2)

May 1   Francis Gary Powers shot down in U-2 over USSR (public discovers spy flights have been routine)

May 6   Civil Rights Act signed by ??

May 13   SLATE sit-in outside HUAC hearings (San Francisco City Hall), police attack 200 protestors --> on national TV

May - early   All 160 million Americans participate in the seventh national air-raid alert

May 9   First oral contraceptive, Enovid, licensed

May   Payola Scandel (radio)

June 13   Newsweek: apathy of students - get this xx

June   Baez & Seeger sing at Newport Folk Festival, which is ended with a hootenanny

  Holiday magazine: Kerouac

"mid-year": Malcolm X starts Muslim newspaper "Mohammed Speaks"


Gerde's Folk City in Greenwich Village starts holding Monday night hootenannys

University of Michigan Daily editor Tom Hayden, having read Kerouac's On the Road, hitchhikes to California & meets SLATE members in Berkeley

Trailways & several southern department store chains desegregate their lunch counters

mid-1960   Sidney Cohen's survey of 5,000 individuals who had taken LSD 25,000 times concludes it is safe

Aug 9   Timothy Leary, 39, tries psilocybin mushrooms in Cuernavaca

Aug 16   Beatles leave for their first trip to Hamburg, Germany (Lennon, 19, is the oldest)



Back at University of Michigan, Hayden founds VOICE

Leary returns to Harvard, secures a supply of psilocybin from Sandoz, & starts the Harvard Project; also makes contact with Huxley and his group: Gerald Heard (Huxley's friend from England's Bloomsbury group), Humphrey Osmond (English psychiatrist in Canada), Al Hubbard

Fall: France - the war in Algeria had been going on for six years. Circles of independent leftists who actively supported the FLN. Some ferried arms, men, money and papers for the Algerians. Called the Jeanson Network, the heart of the group was arrested and was to go on trial on September 6, 1960. The day before, the text of what was to come to be known as the Manifesto of the 121 was released. It calls on draftees to refuse to fight in the Algerian War, cosigners include Simone de Beauvoir & Jean Paul Sartre

Oct 12   Khruschev bangs shoe on desk at the United Nations

Oct 19   MLK & 35 students choose jail after arrest for sit-in requesting service at the snack bar of Atlanta's Rich's department store

Oct 25   MLK, held over on old traffic ticket charges, is denied bail & sentenced to four months hard labor

Oct 26   JFKennedy calls Coretta King & RFK call helps MLK's release (& JFK p.r.)

Nov   President Eisenhower tries to cut US foreign military spending causing gold drain; warns against power of the "military-industrial complex";
US sends troops to Nicaragua & Guatemala

Nov 2   Charles Van Doren is among 13 contestants on television show "21" admits producers of the TV quiz game "Twenty-One" fixed the show by providing him with questions and answers. He was later arrested for perjury for earlier testifying the opposite.

Nov 8   John Fitzgerald Kennedy defeats Nixon - (at 43, the youngest President ever)
with 40% margin among Negro voters in key states, who shifted from 40 to 70% Democratic since the 1956 election

Nov 12   Lord Buckley dies [get more xx]

Nov 13   Sammy Davis Jr marries Swedish actress Mai Britt


Boynton vs. Virginia: Supreme Court prohibits segregation in waiting rooms & restaurants serving interstate bus passengers

Birth control pills (Enovid) go on sale in the US [when were I.U.D.s?? - around 1962 also]

Dec 20   Look: The Explosive Generation (special issue) - editor George Leonard - [get this xx]

1960 when?  

The Place & The Co-Existence Bagel Shop close in San Francisco's North Beach:
"The Place" at 546 Grant was an underground Bohemian hangout from the ‘40s to the ‘60s. It was a center for showing underground painters (e.g. Wally Hedrick projected early liquid-light shows on the walls, and paintings by Robert LaVigne and Jy Defco hung here). "The Place" was managed by Knute Stiles and Leo Krikorian, both Black Mountain College alumni. What started as Dada Night evolved in the late ‘50s into Blabbermouth Night, an open social forum.

1398 Grant Avenue was the site of the Co-Existence Bagel shop where a delicatessen "collided" with a beer-joint-hangout and news center. It was immortalized by Bob Kaufman in Bagel Shop Jazz who describing its regulars as "shadow people… mulberry-eyed girls in black stockings, smelling vaguely of mint jelly… turtle neck angel guys… coffee-faced ivy Leaguers… who’s Harvard was a Fillmore District step." Sadly, the shop closed in 1960. North Beach Video is the current occupant.

1961 - Coffee and Confusion was at 1339 upper Grant Avenue

Congress investigates Teamsters Union

April 1959 to April 1961: Eleven African countries declare independence
1961 - Nineteen new nations emerge in Africa

?? Jane Jacobs organizes first successful urban renewal revolt (over West Greenwich Village)

Construction began on Leisure World, Seal Beach, southern California, the first major planned retirement community of its type in the US; first residents moved in in 1962.



  The Village Vanguard in New York is a famous jazz venue, including "John Coltrane's most stirring moments on stage".

Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Paul Simon turn 20

The Twist -> #1 record for the second time
(-> Watusi, Hully-Gully, Stop & Swim, Mashed Potato +)
Michael Row the Boat Ashore, Moon River, Big Bad John,
Hit the Road Jack, Little Sister, Barbara Ann, Dion: Runaround Sue, Where the Boys Are, Ricky Nelson: Travelin Man, The Dovells: Bristol Stomp,
Roy Orbison: Crying, Neil Sedaka: Happy Birthday, Sweet Sixteen, The Marvelettes: Please Mr. Postman, Chris Kenner: I Like It Like That,
Ben E. King: Stand by Me, Elvis Presley: Surrender, Bobby Vee: Take Care of My Baby

Surf guitarist Dick Dale "Let's Go Trippin'" becomes a hit
Beach Boys formed, Hawthorne, California

Bob Gibson, inspired to perform after seeing Pete Seeger in concert in 1954, with Hamilton “Bob” Camp records the first gold album of the folk boom, "Gibson and Camp at The Gate of Horn". "Live at the Gate of Horn," became one of the era's must-have records.

Joan Baez: second album - goes gold
Where Have All the Flowers Gone - Pete Seeger
Ramblin' Jack Elliot starts
Judy Collins first album

TV: Ben Casey, The Defenders, The Dick Van Dyke Show, Dr. Kildare, The Untouchables

Breakfast At Tiffany's, West Side Story [rechck-have as earlier]
Truffaut: Jules et Jim
Kurosawa: Yojimbo
Godard: A Woman Is a Woman (his 3rd feature) - also with Belmondo
Kerouac, Ginsberg, etc: Pull My Daisy (movie)
(Babes in Toyland with Annette Funicello, Back Street, Blue Hawaii with Elvis Presley,
El Cid, The Errand Boy with Jerry Lewis, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse,
The Guns of Navarone, West Side Story)

Salinger's Franny and Zooey published as a book
Baldwin: Nobody Knows My Name
Eric Berne: Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy
Carl Rogers: On Becoming A Person
Robert Heinlein: Stranger in a Strange Land
John Lilly: Man and Dolphin
Jane Jacobs: The Death and Life of Great American Cities
Miller's Tropic of Cancer finally legally published in US
African Genesis - Robert Ardrey
Harvard ?Student Union's first edition of Let's Go!

Alan Watts speaking on campuses around US

July - Michael Murphy and Dick Price open Esalen Institute in Big Sur
Jan 17, 1961   Eisenhower Farewell Address

Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in peace time, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II or Korea.
   Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United State corporations.
   This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is felt in every city, every state house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.
   In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.
   We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.

Jan 20, 1961  

JFKennedy Inauguration speech
"Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans--born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage--and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world."

Bob Dylan, 19, shows up in Greenwich Village, plays harmonica for Fred Neil,
performs at Izzy Young's Folklore Center on January 28;
January 29 - visits Woody Guthrie in the hospital;
end of January, performs at The Wha?

Beatles debut at the Cavern Club - Lennon (21), McCartney (19), Harrison (18)

Atlanta civil rights demonstrations

(Life magazine: President Kennedy calls attention to Bomb Shelters)

Patrice Lumumba, African nationalist leader, first prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, assassinated

Feb 1   (First anniversary of the Greensboro sit-in): demonstrations all across the southern US, including Nashville movie theater desegregation campaign (which sparks similar demos in 10 other cities); nine students arrested at lunch counter in Rock Hill, South Carolina choose to take 30 days hard labor on a road gang; the next week, four other students repeat the sit-in, also choose jail.

(between Jan & May): University of Georgia: riots against admission of first two Negro students

Feb   Dylan performs at The Commons, The Gaslight, The Limelight, The Lion's Head, The Mill's Tavern, Art D'Lugoff's Village Gate, etc. - Feb 13 - Gerdes Folk City

Feb 18  

Bertrand Russell, 89, & Committee of 100 lead march of 20,000 & sit-down of 5,000 in anti-nuclear demonstration outside U.K. Defense Ministry; Russell is jailed for 7 days

March (early)   Richard Alpert takes psilocybin as part of the Harvard Project  
March   President John F. Kennedy
March 1 - calls for creation of the Peace Corps
March 21 - increases military aid to Indochina (= South Vietnam)
March 28 - initiates 17 billion dollar nuclear missile program

March   Pete Seeger finally called to trial for HUAC silence

spring   Beatles back in Hamburg

Apr 9  

(Sunday) hundreds of folkniks fight police because banned from Washington Square Park;
10 arrested

Apr 11 - 23   Dylan does first billed performance at Gerde's Folk City: two weeks opening for John Lee Hooker

"MImi Baez and Joan Baez meet Dylan at Folk City on April 10"

Apr 12   USSR launches spacecraft Vostok ("east"): first man in space: Yuri Gagarin (27) - world's first piloted space mission.

Apr 13   East Germany begins constructing the Berlin Wall (? see Aug. 13, 1961)

Apr 16   ? (one week after Apr 9) rally of 500 at Judson Memorial Church (re Washington Square Park banning)

  Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba:1400 Cubans trained in the U.S. attempt to invade Cuba & are defeated by forces led by Castro

Apr 23   ? ("two weeks later" was this Apr 30?) 2,000 demonstrate in Washington Square Park

Apr 30   A? ("one week later") another near riot Washington Square Park
---> adverse decision by state Supreme Court

May   President Kennedy calls for 12,000 new Marines, the training of new anti-guerilla units ("Special Forces"/"Green Berets"), and tripling of funds for fallout shelters & other
civil defense programs

May 4   James Farmer & CORE leads Freedom Rides (biracial groups ride interstate buses & use station facilities to challenge non-?observance of 1957 & 1960 civil rights legislation

May 7   ? ("one week later") Washington Square Park: singing without instruments
[how was this resolved?]

May 14   First Freedom bus attacked & burned outside Anniston, Alabama & riders beaten

May 16   SNCC students replace CORE riders

May 21   Mobs attack First Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama

May 25   First American in space: Alan Shepard (blast off May 5)

Montgomery, Alabama: violence breaks out Negro and white

May 28   Amnesty International founded (by English lawyer Peter Benenson & friends) with notice in the London Observer and the Paris Le Monde ["founded October 15, 1962"]


President Kennedy first summit (Vienna) with USSR's Nikita Khrushchev
"diplomatic setback": Khrushchev threatens to take over West Berlin

Nearly 200 more arrested & jailed (Montgomery, Alabama??)

July 21   Second American in space: Grissom

Aug 6   A sit-down demonstration took place at a US Polaris Base in which 20,000 people attended a rally and 5,000 sat down and risked arrest. On August 6, 1961 ("Hiroshima Day") they met at Hyde Park, and Russell (88) illegally used a microphone. He was arrested and convicted of inciting the public to civil disobedience; his sentence was commuted to one week.

Aug 7  

Bob Moses (& SNCC) begins first voter registration school in Mississippi (McComb, Fayette County)


  USSR announces reumption of nuclear tests in the atmosphere  
Aug 13   East German border guards begin construction of Berlin Wall (huh? see 1960 April)

Aug 29   Bob Moses beaten while trying to register two voters in Liberty

Sept 26
  Dylan plays Gerde's Folk City in Greenwich Village (with the Greenbriar Boys), gets first review in the New York Times by Robert Shelton ("20-Year-Old Singer Is Bright New Face at Gerdes Club").

Sept 17   U.K.: March & sit-down, Parliament Square: large numbers & many arrests (while Russell in jail)

Sept 24   Herbert Lee, 52, local Negro leader & freedom school attendee, Fayette City, shot by State Rep. Hurst [check xx]

Oct 4   Mass arrest of 3 SNCC members & 110 Negro high school students praying on McComb City Hall steps in protest of Lee's slaying & suspension of two Freedom Riders - ends SNCC voter registration project


The Twist is still the rage and Chubby Checker leaves for European tour

SLATE leads vigil against resumption of nuclear testing by US & USSR;
50,000 women around US demonstrate against the resumption of nuclear testing

Oct 11   Tom Hayden & Paul Potter beaten on visit to voter registration activities

Nov 1

(Nov 6
Bel Air

Women Strike for Peace

Tennessee: state auctioneers selling off Highland (?Folk Center)

Pushed through by the Kennedys, ICC rules against interstate segregation go into effect - demonstrations throughout the south

Nov 9   Brian Epstein first sees the Beatles at The Cavern, Liverpool

Dec 9   U.K.: Committee of 100 (w Russell) demos at various U.S. air & nuc bases

  SNCC Freedom Rider test of ICC ruling in Albany, Georgia leads to five days of arrests of 469/500/700 students for marching around city hall. Some 350 choose to stay in jail as part of the Albany movement.

Dec 11   First two U.S. Army helicopter units land in South Vietnam

Dec 16   MLK arrested Albany, Georgia with some 250 more demonstrators

  Saturday Evening Post: "Youth - The Good Generation": the typical young person
"shows few symptoms of frustration, and is most unlikely to rebel or involve
himself in crusades of any kind. . . . The United States has bred a generation
of nice little boys and girls who are just what we have asked them to be."

  HUAC film: Operation Abolition depicting SLATE activities in Berkeley draws activists to Berkeley


1961-1962 Saturday Evening Post and Playboy: Malcolm X - xx

  "The East Village, with blacks, comes into being around Tompkins Square western border: Cooper Square" - Hettie Jones

Bitter End - Tuesday night Hoots

Cesar Chavez (Ce/sar Cha/vez) starts NFWA in Delano with his own savings for 300,000 migratory farmworkers

Gideon case: all people accused of serious crimes have a right to be represented by counsel

Amelia Newell opens her land at Gorda Mountain, Big Sur for the first open-land commune (at its peak in 1967, 200 people lived there; ended 1968)

Sierra Club protests building of dams that would flood Grand Canyon


Let Me In, Wah-Watusi, Mashed Potato, He's a Rebel (Gene Pitney/The Crystals), Lonely Tear Drops, Girl From Ipanema, Elvis: Return to Sender,
Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons: Big Girls Don't Cry, The Drifters: Up on the Roof
Neil Sedaka: Breaking Up Is Hard to Do, Little Eva: The Loco-Motion,
June 2: Isley Bros: Twist and Shout
Sam Cooke: Twisting the Night Away
*Everly Brothers: Crying in the Rain
*Beach Boys: Surfin' (Dec 1961) & Surfin' Safari
Dick Dale: Surfer's Choice

[Rhino:] Duke of Earl / Soldier
Boy / Sheila / Joey Dee & the Starliters: Peppermint Twist Part 1 / Dion: The Wanderer / Johnny Angel / Palisades Park

(September 4-11 Beatles first recording; December: Love Me Do is on British charts, followed by Please Please Me; a week later Please Please Me first album released)

Peter, Paul and Mary at the top of the charts;
Ian & Sylvia first record (from Canada)
Little Boxes - Malvina Reynolds

Vaughn Meader doing JFK improvisations

TV: Beverly Hillbillies, Leave It to Beaver (final year)

UK: That Was The Year That Was

Fellini: Boccaccio ?70
To Kill a Mockingbird with Gregory Peck
Knife in the Water - Roman Polanski

Abraham Maslow: Toward a Psychology of Being
Harrington: The Other America
Kerouac: Big Sur
Rachael Carson: Silent Spring
Miller: Tropic of Capricorn
Ken Kesey: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Aldous Huxley: Island (utopian community)
Alan Watts: The Joyous Cosmology
?Adelle Davis: Exploring Inner Space
Euell Gibbons: Stalking the Wild Asparagus

Aug 9 - Herman Hesse dies, nearly unknown to U.S. readers

John Lilly article on dolphin research in Science magazine

Findhorn Foundation (Scotland) founded

Feb 7   First U.S. Army support companies arrive in Saigon

  Boston SANE & fledgling SDS hold first anti-nuclear march on Washington; 4000-8000 show up

Feb 20   First (person?) (American) to orbit earth: John Glenn

F? M?   Baker v. Carr: one man/one vote

Mar?   Harvard Psilocybin Project challenged (meanwhile Leary has discovered LSD)
[? page 162 - Storming Heaven, & page 163 - see]

Mar   March 9: Life Magazine: Folk singers and their fans - ABC's Hootenanny television show

Bob Dylan: first album out

Strategic Hamlet program started in Vietnam

Mar?   (14 months after JFK in office) military budget up 9 billion

Apr   (Dylan writes Blowin in the Wind)

Apr 6   First Hootenanny television show - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor #1
The Limeliters: "I Had a Mule," "Wake Up, Dunia," "The Riddle Song." Bud & Travis: "Raspberries, Strawberries," "Delia's Gone." Bob Gibson: "Good News," "Yes I See" (with the Limeliters). Bonnie Dobson: "She's Like a Swallow," "Fare Thee Well" (with Bob Gibson). FINALE: "Mary Don't You Weep" (Saturdays, 8:30 pm EST) - runs 13 weeks, until April 25,1964

Apr 11   Beatles back to Hamburg to play at the Star-Club (to June 4)

Apr 26   Vanessa Redgrave (among others) speaks at Bertrand Russell's Committee of 100 anti-nuclear weapons demonstration at Air Ministry in London [?=Trafalgar Square]
[Date checked by Dennis Pearson - Sources: Michael Kohlman: Sobel, Lester A. Facts on File Yearbook 1962. New York: Facts on File Inc. 1963:137. / Tarik Husain: Redgrave, Vanessa. Vanessa Redgrave. New York: Random House. 1994.]

Apr 27   Los Angeles Negro uprising (according to "Eyes on The Prize"): Griffith Park - 200 youths vs police arresting one for horseplay on a merry-go-round

May   Pete Seeger's charges finally reversed (for HUAC silence)

Jn12-16   Port Huron Statement (SDS)

summer   Neal Cassady visits Ken Kesey at Perry Lane, having read "One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest"

Jamaica, Trinidad, & Tobaga become independent

first doubts about LSD research start to surface
(35 Harvards meet at Hotel Catalina in Zihuatanejo)

July - Thalidomide in the news

July 10   Martin Luther King & Abernathy choose to go to jail for their part in December Albany demonstrations

July 12   Unidentified Negro man (secretly sent by JFK) pays MLK's fine

July 19   First tv picture crosses Atlantic ocean by Telstar satellite

July 27   Martin Luther King back in jail (to Aug 10)

Aug   Ban the Bomb demos UN, London, Helsinki, Tokyo, Hiroshima;
Women's Strike for Peace (End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race)

Aug 4   Sat eve: Marilyn Monroe dies at 36 (? of drug o.d.??)

fall   Leary founds International Foundation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) to promote LSD research & publish The Psychedelic Review; IFIF rents two houses in Newton as "Freedom House"s

Sept   SNCC voter registration drive leaders in Georgia sniped at & churches burned & Mississippi (Ruleville)

Sept 30   -Oct 1 JFK calls out troops to allow James Meredith to become the first Negro admitted to University of Mississippi (troops stay until late summer 1963, after Meredith has his degree)

(Dylan writes Oxford Town)

Oct 3, 1961   Eisenhower speech at Naval War College:
Q: General, in one of your final speeches you warned of the dangers of a military-industrial complex. What can the military do to prevent this from happening?

A: I think that my earlier little sermon was about as good an answer as I could give you on that question. What I did say was this: it wasn't merely the armament industry. I said that we are getting such combinations of influences which affect our own interests in so many places that we must be very, vary careful that we don't go down the wrong path. For example, if, as an Army officer, I am offered more armies or more missiles, I will consider this as double insurance. All the other services certainly feel the same way. We want all we can get. The JCS constantly would tell me that the sums placed before Congress for our defense were quite ample. But each always said that he needed a bit more of the pie.
   If we are going to solve this particular problem, we have got to recognize that the nation's resources are not unlimited. The congressman who sees a new defense establishment in his district; the company in Los Angeles, Denver, or Baltimore that wants an order for more airplanes; the services which want them, the armies of scientists who want so terribly to test out their newest views; put all of these together and you have a lobby. This lobby has not necessarily been formed deliberately, but it is a lobby which has been formed out of a community of interests - and it touches almost every individual in the United States. This is the thing we have got to watch out for. And I think all of us must be very, very careful not to let those unconsciously formed lobbies influence our thinking too much. The heavy responsibilities that fall upon you as advisors must be carried out with complete disinterest and disassociation from your own personal ideas. You cannot permit yourselves to ask, "Wouldn't it be nice to have another half dozen carriers, or a hundred more Polarises?" This is what I was talking about six months ago.

Oct 22   Vaughn Meader tapes The First Family album

  President Kennedy's Cuban Missile Blockade
(after 10 months of CIA's Operation Mongoose)
JFK quarantines Cuba, demanding removal of Soviet missiles

(Dylan writes A Hard Rains A-Gonna Fall)

Nov   Nixon loses for governor for California (to incumbent Pat Brown)

First Berkeley sit-in against racial discrimination at Mel's Drive-in, San Francisco & demos around the country and the south

Nov 23   Joan Baez on the cover of Time magazine

Dec   Mariner 2 sends photos of Venus

Bob Dylan's first trip to England


1962 when? JFK announces the US would unilaterally stop nuclear tests in the atmosphere,
which began the cycling down of the arms race until JFK left office

1962 when? Nuclear non-proliferation pact

1963-1980 Baby boomer generation (Prophet) born 1943-1960 turns 20


Height of the Mods and Rockers in UK (according to Quadrophenia)

Robert Mangalise Sobukwe is detained after completion of three-year sentence by a special Act of Parliament, and transferred from Pretoria to Robben Island prison. The Act is renewed yearly until 1969, when he was finally released, sent to Kimberley, a place where he had never lived before, and kept under house arrest until his death in 1978. John Vorster, then minister of the country, said of Sobukwe, 'He is a man with magnetic personality, great organising ability and a divine sense of mission.'

1963?? Life? Look?: A College Majority - Dropouts - Six out of ten leave college before they graduate - most by the end of their sophomore year . . . cannot seem to leave the vicinity of the campus, fill cheap apartments . . . whole colonies of dropouts spring up; one student asked, 'What's wrong with hanging around? My God - they're the only real students at the college.' "

Equal Pay for Equal Work law passed



(Sam Cooke: Another Saturday Night, The Ronettes: Be My Baby, Beach Boys: Be True to Your School,
The Crystals: Da Doo Ron Ron & Then He Kissed Me, Leslie Gore: It's My Party,
The Angels: My Boyfriend's Back, Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons: Walk Like a Man)
Beach Boys: Surfin' USA & Surfer Girl (with Little Deuce Coupe)
Jan & Dean: Surf City
Ventures: Surfing
Chris Kenner: Land of 1000 Dances
PT 109 (what year?)
Beatles: first album and Feb. 1- "Please, Please Me" #1 in UK (not yet known in US??)

[Rhino:] Louie Louie / Sugar Shack / He's So Fine / It's My Party / Easier Said Than Done / Walk Like a Man / My Boyfriend's Back / Little Stevie Wonder: Fingertips

Hello Muddah, The Singing Nun;
Guantanamara, If I Had a Hammer, Puff the Magic Dragon, ?Charlie off the MTA?

*Freewheelin' Bob Dylan with "Blowin in the Wind"
Peter, Paul, and Mary:
August: Blowin' in the Wind
is #5 in 10th week on Billboard magazine's Hot 100, sixth week in the Top 10, was at #2 two weeks before./ covers by Peter, Paul & Mary & many others.

There But For Fortune - Phil Ochs
Chad Mitchell Trio (with John Denver)
Tom Paxton: The Last Thing on My Mind (?album)
Dave Van Ronk gets recorded
Judy Henske records three albums
Buffy Sainte-Marie: It's My Way (1st album) with Universal Soldier
Bo Diddley first album
Otis Redding first album
Little Stevie Wonder
(Bunny Wailer, Marley, Tosh start playing together).
Merle Haggard cuts first records, launches "Bakersfield Sound" with Buck Owens.
Misssissippi John Hurt, 1920s bluesman, rediscovered and performs at festivals (Son House & Skip James also).

TV: Buddy Dean show (?Philadelphia?) - canceled rather than integrate

Fellini: Eight and a Half
(The Great Escape, Cleopatra, From Russia With Love)
Dr. Strangelove or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, directed by Kubrick
Alfred Hitchcock films The Birds in Bodega Bay, California

Mary MacCarthy: The Group
Book of the Hopi - Frank Waters
Betty Friedan: The Feminine Mystique
James Baldwin: The Fire Next Time + Notes of a Native Son
John Cage: A Year From Monday
Vonnegut: Cat's Cradle (ice 9)
Leary +: The Psychedelic Experience (version of the Tibetan Book of the Dead/Bardo Thodol)
J. D. Salinger: Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters, and Seymour: An Introduction

Pier Avenue Junior High in Hermosa Beach, California
hosts US's first skateboarding competition

(My Fair Lady, Mary Poppins)
(The Umbrellas of Cherbourg)
(Tom Jones - UK)

[Gitlen:] 1963: 930 civil rights demonstrations in at least 115 cities in eleven southern states; over 20,000 arrested.

Jan   Albama Gov. Wallace's "Segregation Forever" speech at inauguration

Feb 20   Greenwood, Miss: SNCC Voter Registration headquarters
& 4 Negro businesses burned

Feb 28   Jimmy Travis, 20, Bob Moses & Randolph Blackwell, returning from V E Project meeting, shot at

March   shootings & burnings in Greenwood & arrests & Republicans introduce stronger civil rights
legislation into Congress

Apr 3   Birmingham: sit-ins & demos begun by SCLC & volunteers

Apr 11   Birmingham, Alabama city officials (including Bull Connor) obtain injunction against any demonstrations

Apr 12   Dylan's first major concert - Town Hall, New York City

April 12-20   Martin Luther King & Abernathy go to jail in Birmingham for marching in defiance of the injunction

Apr 14   Easter Sunday SANE, New York City "Peace Walk"

May?   Dylan tapes John Birch Society Blues for the Ed Sullivan tv show (censored)

May 1 - Dylan interviewed by Studs Terkel
& in last Time magazine issue in May
May 2   Birmingham: 958 children go to jail for marching

May 3   Connor orders fire houses & dogs turned on children marching out of the 16th St Baptist Church in Birmingham to keep them from marching out of the "Negro section"

May 6   (Mon) Birmingham: 1000 children & adults arrested, making a total of about 2500 (Ella Baker, Dave Dellinger, James Forman, Dick Gregory, Guy & Candie Carawan, Joan Baez in Birmingham)

May 7   Thousands of Negro children enter downtown "white" Birmingham

May 8   Buddhist uprisings against Diem start in Hue

May 9?   Meetings between white & Negro leaders negotiate an end to much of Birmingham segregation

May 11   (Sat) KKK rally just outside of Birmingham and bombing of A.D. King's home & Gaston Motel,
followed by riot around the motel area

May 16 - xxx   Sit-ins & marches throughout the south next 10 weeks: 758 demonstrations,
14,733 arrests - in 186 cities (throughout June & July)

May   Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (with Blowin in the Wind)

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan sing at Monterey Folk Festival, and Baez starts introducing Dylan at her concerts

  L. Gordon Cooper makes 22 orbits of earth in a Mercury spacecraft -

May 28   Medgar Evers gets agreement of negotiations in Jackson which is then withdrawn; 4 students & professor harassed during sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter

May 31   600 children arrested for marching [Jackson?? or Birmingham?]

June 1   First Buddhist monk, Quang Duc (73) immolates self in Vietnam

June   Leary quits Harvard; Alpert fired

Bob Dylan's Blowin in the Wind in the top 10

Demonstrations & arrests - Tallahasee, North Carolina

June ?1   Saturday Review: They Split My Personality (negative on LSD) - get?
[June 1 46:39 (& July 6 46:43-5)]

June 5   First Negro student enters University of Mississippi law school (without incident)

June 9   Arinell Ponder of SCLC & 5 students arrested & beaten for using white Trailways bathrooms, Winona, Miss.

June 11  

Cambridge, Md: 25 arrested outside courthouse; firehoses in Danville, Va send 48 of 65 demos to hospital;

Gov. George Wallace, trying to fulfill campaign promise to "stand in the schoolhouse door" to halt integration, is confronted by Alabama National Guard, placed under Federal control by JFKennedy

Two Negro students quietly registered at University of Alabama

JFKennedy television speech promises Civil Rights bill, Southern Democrats vow to block

June 12  

Medgar Evers (NAACP Field Sec) shot dead, Jackson, Mississippi, on arrival at his home

(Dylan writes Only a Pawn in their Game)

Buddhist monk Trich Quan Duc publicly immolates himself, Saigon

summer   Leary hosts Freedom House groups in Zihuatanejo, Mexico & is forced to move on to Dominica & then Antigua (ck Time mag)

[The movie "Dirty Dancing" is set in summer of 1963]

July   Dylan, Peter Seeger and Burl Ives visit & sing in field outside Greenwood, Mississippi

July (end)   Newport Folk Festival: 37,000 attend, debut for many new folk musicians, including Bob Dylan (introduced by Joan Baez)

---> start of Hootenanny fad

In the following months Dylan appears with Baez at numerous concerts

Aug 3

  Beatles farewell show at the Cavern Club

[Picketers in Torrance, California and other places]

Aug 27   Look magazine: The real folk singers: Miram Makeba; Chad Mitchell Trio; Peter, Paul, and Mary; Burl Ives; The Weavers; Theodore Bikel; Kingston Trio; Brothers Four; the Limeliters; the New Lost City Ramblers; Lester Flatt; Earl Scruggs; Bill Monroe; Doc Watson; Odetta; "Lightnin' Sam" Hopkins; "Big Bill" Broonzy; Leadbelly; John Lee Hooker; Harry Belafonte; Jean Ritchie; Bob Dylan; Pete Seeger; Joan Baez; Woody Guthrie.

Aug 28   MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech, Washington DC Civil Rights March
200,000 / 300,000 - 500,000 / 210,000 - 250,000+
(JoanBaez, Odetta, Josh White, SNCC Freedom Singers, Peter, Paul & Mary, Dylan perform; also Marlon Brando, Charlton Heston, Paul Newman, Harry Belafonte, Marian Anderson, Sammy Davis, Jr. and Diahann Carroll)

Sept?   Negative pieces on Leary/Alpert firing appear in Esquire, Saturday Evening Post, Look (get?)

  Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert, and other Harvard alumni LSD-researchers move to the Hitchcock's estate in Millbrook, New York (+ The Psychedelic Exp going to printer)
fall Time mag on IFIF - get?

Sept   Birmingham fights over school integration

Sept 10   20 Negro children integrated into Birmingham schools

Sept 13   Wallace announces candidacy for president

Sept 15   Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham bombed, killing four young Negro female Sunday School students (Addie Mae Collins 14, Denise McNair 11, Carol Robertson 14, Cynthia Wesley 11)

Oct 7   JFKennedy signs Atomic / Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, first disarmament agreement of the nuclear age (banned atmospheric tests? in space & beneath the sea)

Oct 9 JFKennedy announces negotiations for the first wheat sale to USSR

Oct   Dylan and Baez at the Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles

Oct 13   Beatles at London Palladium shown on television; media discovers Beatlemania
("I Want to Hold Your Hand is #1 in UK) (Lennon is 23)

Nov 1   Vietnam: Military junta overthrows and assassinates Diem

Nov   early: "Freedom Vote" 90,000 Mississippi Negroes "vote" (in parallel election organized by SNCC) for the first time

Nov   Beatlemania UK to January 1964

Dylan at Carnegie Hall and Newsweek article

Playboy: Allen Harrington's account of LSD session
& Huxley's last piece on the psychedelic dream - get?

Leary's IFIF mutates into Castalia

Nov   end JFKennedy plans withdrawal/withdraws 1000 of 17,000 advisors in Vietnam, quietly opens a dialogue with Castro's Cuba, and pursues detente with the USSR (Hayden)

16,000 troops in Vietnam

Nov 22  

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassinated,
Lyndon Baines Johnson sworn in as President;

schools and businesses close for days while
television covers the events and the funeral on November 25

also Aldous Huxley dies, on LSD

Nov 24   Lee Harvey Oswald, under arrest for killing Kennedy, is assassinated

LBJ signs national security memorandum stating US goal in Vietnam is helping the Saigon government to a military "victory"

Dec 24   3000 girls at Beatles Christmas show at the Astoria Cinema, London


On to The Early Sixties: British Rock and The Free Speech Movement 1964-1965