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Counterculture Timeline: The Early Sixties: British Rock and The Free Speech Movement 1964-1965

AWAKENING: Consciousness Revolution 1964-1984

-- "1964: First major number of baby boomers born 1946 turn 18" [Gitlin] --
1964   California surpasses New York as most populous US state

Mods in UK [Goodman: Lennon page 167]

  Last year of the Baby Boom


Walk On Boy, We'll Sing in the Sunshine, Baby Love, The Dixie Cups: Chapel of Love,
Shangri-Las: Leader of the Pack, Kingsmen: Louie Louie, Roy Orbison: Pretty Woman
Roger Miller: King of the Road, A Spoonful of Sugar, Dang Me, Chug-A-Lug
Jan & Dean: Ride the Wild Surf & Little Old Lady from Pasadena
Beach Boys: Deuce Coupe & California Girls & I Get Around
Do Wah Diddy Diddy
She's Not There
Last Kiss

BEATLES: (US hits & US tour)
Can't Buy Me Love, I Saw Her Standing There, Wanna Hold Your Hand, Love Me Do
*from UK: Pacemakers, Herman's Hermits, Chad Stuart & Jeremy Clyde, Petula Clark (first hit: Downtown), The Kinks, Manfred Mann, The Hollies, Dave Clark Five: I Like It Like That)
*The Rolling Stones
(i.e. Time is on My Side)
& 12 x 5?
The Animals: House of the Rising Sun (were they UK?)

Fred Neil first album
Phil Ochs first album (with: There But For Fortune?? )
*Dylan: The Times They are a Changin'
*Another Side of Bob Dylan
(Blowin' In The Wind - hits the tops of the charts)
*Simon & Garfunkel: "Sounds of Silence" [album: Wednesday Morning 3 a.m., released Oct 1964] [was it out earlier as a single?] [see: Kitty Genovese]

TV: Gomer Pyle, Gilligan's Island, The Man from U.N.C.L.E.

(Fail-Safe, Goldfinger, My Fair Lady)
Beatles: A Hard Day's Night (movie) (opens London July 6)
Zorba the Greek (the movie)
It's A Mad Mad Mad Mad World (people are basically mad, so there's no hope for the world)
Woman in the Dunes
La Jette: Chris Marker (Fr)

Herbert Marcuse: One Dimensional Man
Marshall McLuhan: Understanding Media
Carl Jung: Man and His Symbols
I Never Promised You a Rose Garden: Hannah Green
Eric Berne: Games People Play (start of transactional analysis)
David Halberstam: The Making of a Quagmire

Jean-Paul Sartre refuses the Nobel Prize for literature in 1964 for fear it would
turn him into an institution.

pop art, op art + Situationists have art show (London) but poorly-attended

Rudi Gernreich premieres topless bathing suit, southern California

textured stockings

??African Genesis
early   Kesey moves to La Honda, Merry Pranksters form

Jan   LBJ state-of-the-union: declares war on poverty while cutting budget and uranium production

Jan 11   Surgeon General's cigarette warning

Jan   Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin'

Beatles: *I Want to Hold Your Hand -> #1 US

Jan 23   24th Amendment to the US constitution eliminates polling taxes

Jan 30   New military junta takes over in South Vietnam

  February 7: Beatles arrive in US
February 9: first appearance on the Ed Sullivan
TV Show
February 11: Beatles:
first live concert appearance in the US at the Coliseum in Washington, DC., drawing an audience of 20,000 fans.
February 12: two concert performances at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
February 16: second appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show
February 22: return to England.


(Dylan visits southern US & writes Chimes of Freedom)
Dylan on Steve Allen TV show
(mid to late February or March - Dylan & Baez at Berkeley Community Theater)

Feb 25   Muhammed? Ali (Cassius Clay) beats Sonny Liston (& Clay announces he is a Muslim)

Look magazine: first published hologram included ("parallax panoramagram - the first three-dimensional ever reproduced in mass quantities")

Mar 6   Protest against Sheraton Palace Hotel's discrimination in hiring (San Francisco)

    Beatles: Can't Buy Me Love, And I Love Her
and filming A Hard Day's Night

March   After RFK investigation, Hoffa indicted on jury-tampering charges in 1962 mistrial for misuse of union pension funds

Malcolm X, silenced by Elijah Muhammed's Muslims, visits Africa

Mar 21   Leary starts first week of solitary LSD

spring   Newsweek on Millbrook - get?

Apr   Kitty Genovese, age?, coming home from a night job in the early a.m., stabbed repeatedly and over an extended period of time, while 38 residents of Kew Gardens, a "respectable" New York neighborhood, heard and witnessed but did not call police.

Apr 23   Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles

Apr 24   Crosses burned in 64 of Mississippi's 82 counties to prepare for Freedom Summer

May   Very first "Faire Free Press" at first? KPFK Renaissance Faire (later became the LA Free Press)

Dylan's first visit to England, meets Beatles, Rolling Stones, Eric Burden of Animals (who is doing first "folk-rock" piece House of Rising Sun); turns Beatles on to mj

"Hell No We Won't Go" already publicized

May 30   Carolyn Hester on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post, story on the folk music boom

June   The oldest baby boomers (born 1946) reach 18, graduate high school

June Lenny Bruce goes on trial in New York City

June 19   Carol Doda dances in a Rudi Gernreich topless bathing suit in The Condor nightclub, North Beach

200 college students leave Oxford, Ohio
to join 1,000 total civil rights volunteers as part of
Civil Rights "Freedom Summer" to register Negro voters

(80,000 Mississippi negros join MFDP)

June 21   Three civil rights activists (James Chaney (21), Andrew Goodman (20), Michael Schwerner (24)) killed on arrival in Mississippi by the Klu Klux Klan

June   Six Negro churches burned in Mississippi (21 more by September); 30 Negroes murdered January to August

June 22   Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer, still being smuggled into U.S. from Paris, finally ruled legal for distribution in U.S.


SDS ERAP: 125 members organizing the poor in the slums of nine cities

Millbrook House LSD sessions [when? Realist piece by Robert Anton Wilson - get?]

Saturday night "happenings" in Spui Square start in Amsterdam

July 2   LBJ signs Civil Rights Act: public facilities opened to all

July   Kesey & Merry Pranksters' first Magic Bus trip (to New York)

Newport Folk Festival - Dylan performs all love songs

Beatles: Hard Day's Night released UK

July 18   Harlem Negro uprising

July 20   Brooklyn Negro uprising

July 22   Rochester Negro uprising

  Sun House first reappearance (Newport Folk Festival)

Aug 2-4


New Jersey Negro uprising

South Vietnam: new military junta takes over - [see earlier date for this xx

North Vietnamese PT boats attack U.S. navy destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin; U. S. air action against the torpedo boats & their bases. [see i.e. People's History p. 466] [reverse order??]

Aug 7   Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin resolution: declaration of war on North Vietnam; Seventh fleet sent to Vietnam / (only Sen Ernest Gruening of Alaska & Wayne Morse of Oregon dissent) (19 years after bombing of Hiroshima, Nagasaki)

Aug   Beatles: *Hard Day's Night released in US;

August 19 - September 20: Beatles first U.S. tour (25 North American. cities in 32 days - 10,000-20,000 girls per show)

Ken Kesey & his Merry Pranksters visit? Leary & Alpert at Millbrook

Dylan: Another Side of Bob Dylan (all love songs)

  New Jersey Negro uprising  
  Chicago Negro uprising  
Aug 20   LBJ signs into law the Economic Opportunity Act: War on Poverty Bill - creates community action agencies Job Corps and VISTA and HeadStart (as outlined in his January speech)

(is this "The Great Society" program? = education bill; tax law; civil rights act; economic opportunity act "War on Poverty")

Aug 23   Beatles Hollywood Bowl concert, Los Angeles

  Democratic convention refuses to seat more than two representatives from the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party [DS p. 212] [Gitlin]

Aug 25   Last episode of Hootenanny television show - College of William and Mary, Williamsburg VA #2
The Brothers Four – "Darlin' Sportin' Jenny," "Seven Daffodils," "Twenty-Five Minutes to Go" Trini Lopez – "Kansas City," "Jailer, Bring Me Water" and "If You Want To Be Happy" Bob Gibson: "Bimini," "Andalusian Dance" Marilyn Child (actress-singer): "Tell Old Bill" Bob Gibson and Marilyn Child: "Sinner Man" The Gateway Trio: Unknown Jackie Vernon: Stand-up comedy routine

Aug 28   Bob Dylan turns the Beatles on to mj in the Delmonico Hotel, New York City

  Philadelphia Negro uprising

Sept 3   Wilderness Act becomes law (by 1988 adds 80 million acres to the 11 million acres currently in the wilderness system)

[H S Jr xx]
  Ralph Metzner, Harvard alumni of Leary's group, goes to India, contacts & studies with Lama Govinda (?The Way of the White Clouds)


-- The oldest baby boomers (born 1946) enter college
("Freshmen enrollments up 17%" / "1,225,000 freshmen, 20% more than fall 1963" [Look]--

Sept 1964  

Selective Service calls up 27,500, more than in any month since 1953

Mario Savio (22) is attending UC Berkeley, having been drawn there after reading David Horowitz's book "Student", which detailed the activities of the left-progressive ASUC party SLATE; he had spent the summer of 1964 registering voters in Mississippi

  Free Speech Movement:
George Leonard - page 150

[Gitlin page 169]: In late 1964, Mary King and Casey Hayden of SNCC wrote anonymous xxx protesting that women automatically consigned to menial office tasks. Carmichael: The position of women in SNCC is prone.
Sept 14   UC Berkeley: Clark Kerr bans all politicking outside UC Berkeley's main gate

Sept 22   (second day of classes) picket line in front of UC Berkeley administration building of conservatives to liberals, continues through September

Sept 23   Picketers march to President Clark Kerr's house where Board of Regents is meeting

Sept 27   Warren Commission Report on JFK assasination released; says Oswald's was the only bullet

Sept 28   Chancellor of UC Berkeley gives okay to have tables up in designated areas but only to distribute literature and advocate voting, not to advocate any political activity

Sept 30   Mid-day: 8 people at SNCC and other tables told to report for suspension at 3 pm.
At 3 pm, hundreds of people join those told to report in march to Sproul Hall; sit-in overnight

Oct 1   Thurs: Birth of the Free Speech Movement at UC Berkeley:
math graduate student Jack Weinberg, who had been sitting at the CORE information table in Sproul Plaza, is arrested for not removing himself and refusing to show his registration card on demand [trespassing]; police car holding arrested Jack Weinberg is surrounded by 3000 demonstrating students for 32 hours; Mario Savio (22, philosophy student) speaks;
administrators are blocked from going home, but Mario Savio and others negotiate
thru ad hoc faculty committee because administration refuses to talk to demonstrators directly

Oct 2   Fri: Newspaper says there was a riot at the University in which cops were beaten
Sit-in continues with speakers standing atop surrounded police car; administrations agrees to drop the charges against Jack Weinberg, limit suspensions of the 8 students; and setting up a faculty-student group to consider the issue, including deeding the Bancroft-Telegraph area to the city or to the ASUC as a free speech area. Weinberg: "Don't trust anyone over thirty."

Oct   In the following weeks, the Free Speech Movement is formed, with an executive committee
made up of representatives of all 20 affected groups (right and left).

Oct 8   Thurs: UC Berkeley: unaffiliated undergraduates (most of those who had been at the sit-in) vote for delegates to the FSM executive committee

Oct 9   Fri: UC Berkeley: unaffiliated graduates vote for delegates

Life magazine: A Minstrel with a Mission - Pete Seeger

Oct 14   Khrushchev deposed in U.S.S.R. -> Brezhnev

Oct 16   China tests first atomic bomb, becoming fifth nuclear power

Oct 26   Rolling Stones on Ed Sullivan

Nov   Johnson defeats Goldwater for US Presidency

UC Berkeley administration, having reneged on agreement by unilaterally appointing members to the faculty-student group, then limiting it to studying the issue but not resolve it, and allows District Attorney to initiate legal action against Jack Weinberg

Nov 9   Mon: UC Berkeley study committee's deliberations reaches impasse; students begin setting up tables again; dean takes the names of 70 students and hundreds more sign petitions stating they are guilty of the same act (when tables are manned with teaching assistants, deans stop taking names)

Nov 12   Thurs: UC Berkeley: faculty committee gives its recommendations on the cases of the 8 suspended students: 6 to be immediately reinstated, but Mario Savio and Art Goldberg be suspended for six weeks starting September 30; administrations annouces it will take no action on this until December 8.

Nov 20   Fri: UC regents meeting near campus, largest rally, speakers, Joan Baez sings,
march, 6 abreast, from Sproul Plaza to large lawn across from University Hall;
observers at regents meeting hear Clark Kerr advise ignoring proposals by students
and the academic senate, and presented limitations on political content
and the right of prior restraint, which was accepted by the regents

  Thanksgiving Recess - (most UC students leave campus) Chancellor sent letters to
Savio & Goldberg initiating new disciplinary action against them

Dec 2   1500 at noon rally in front of Sproul Hall; Joan Baez sings on Sproul Hall steps "before the sit-in begins"; "nearly 1000" sit-in overnight in Sproul Hall

Dec 3   1 am Governor Brown orders police attack of sit-in in UC Berkeley Sproul Hall; 800 (779) arrests; students boycott classes and 4000 protest in front of Sproul Hall

Dec 4  

FSM strike continues at UC Berkeley and noon rally - 9000 students boycott classes

Dec 7   U.C. Berk administration presentation at the Greek Theatre to 13,000 / 18,000; Mario Savio steps up to mike afterward to announce meeting to follow, grabbed by UC police and dragged backstage; crowd chanted "We want Mario"; Savio released to mikes to say: "Please leave here. Clear this disastrous scene and get down to discussing the issues." Followed by strike by 9,000 of the 27,000 students

Dec 8   UC Berkeley faculty resolution (824 to 115) supporting FSM

Dec 10   MLK awarded Nobel Peace Prize

Dec 11   Singer Sam Cooke dies of gunshot wounds, Los Angeles

1964   when? Berkeley Barb starts publication

when? Indian fishermen fish-ins, Nisqually River, Washington

when? US Supreme Court affirms members of Native Amer Church use of peyote in religious ceremonies



  SDS has 8,000 members in 1964-65

Adrian Cronauer broadcasting in Vietnam

First DC-9 aircraft built

Volkswagen starts American sales campaign "Think Small"

Peace Corps returnees having trouble with "re-entry"

Leary visits in India, returns late spring to find Millbrook in poor state, Alpert asked to leave

Washington judge rules Puyallup tribe does not exist, and cannot fish on the Puyallup River

New York City black-out

University of Santa Cruz opens, with innovative open structure

California Land Conservation Act (Williamson Act) passed - to protect farm land



My Girl, I Got You Babe, Hang on Sloopy, Help Me Rhonda,
Stop in the Name of Love, Woolly Bully
R.E.S.P.E.C.T. - Otis Redding

The Year of "Folk-Rock":
Simon & Garfunkel: Sounds of Silence (album)
*Donovan: Catch The Wind & Fairytale
*Rolling Stones Now! & Out of Our Heads (with Satisfaction & December's Child)
*Dylan: Bringing It All Back Home with Mr. Tambourine Man
& Highway 61 Revisited with Like A Rolling Stone
*Beatles: We Can Work It Out/Day Tripper
Rubber Soul (recorded fall 1965) with Yesterday and Norwegian Wood (with sitar)
["first artistic rock album cover" xx]

*Byrds: Mr. Tambourine Man (summer hit - #1 by June 26)
& Turn! Turn! Turn!
*(Paul) Butterfield Blues Band
Barry McGuire: Eve of Destruction

*from UK: Animals (w Eric Burdon): We Gotta Get Out of this Place
*from UK: Yardbirds (with Eric Clapton): For Your Love
*from UK: Them
(with Van Morrison)

Lovin Spoonful: Do You Believe in Magic? / Hot Town Summer in the City
The Fugs in the Village
(rock musicians with poets Ginsberg, Corso)

This Diamond Ring, You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin', Treat Her Right

"Pop Rock" (Sonny & Cher, Beach Boys - sez Look magazine

TV: Hullabaloo, Shindig

The Knack - And How to Get It
Fellini: Juliet of the Spirits
Beatles: Help!
(What's New Pussycat?)

The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby - Tom Wolfe
The Loved One - Evelyn Waugh (Forest Lawn)
John Barth: The Sot-Weed Factor
Saul Bellow: Herzog
John Lennon: A Spaniard in the Works (June)
Malcolm X - Alex Haley
Manchild in the Promised Land - Claude Brown
Unsafe At Any Speed - Ralph Nader (Nov)
Light on Yoga - B.K.S. Iyengar
Dune - Frank Herbert
j. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings re-released (originally published 1954) and becomes best seller

George Leonard of Look Mag & Michael Murphy, founder of Esalen Institute,
found Human Potential Movement

pop art

"bell bottoms"

Jan   Time Mag says "generation of conformists"

Jan 4   FSM holds first legal rally on Sproul Plaza

Feb   Police raid Owsley's house in Berkeley

MLK & 770 others arrested in Selma, Alabama for picketing county courthouse to end discrimination on voting rights

?Feb   Byrds release single of Mr. Tambourine Man

Feb 8   U.S. starts bombing North Vietnam & begins using jet bombers inside South Vietnam for strikes against "VC" targets (`Operation Rolling Thunder')

Feb 21   Malcolm X shot and killed, Harlem auditorium

Mar 3   Owsley starts making LSD: large quantities of acid available for the first time

Mar 6   "First US soldier officially sets foot on Vietnam battlefields"

Mar 7   Selma, Alabama: police violence against march [Leonard page 180]

Mar 8   Supreme Court rules co s need not believe in existence of a Supreme Being (Daniel Seeger case) (and June 15 Elliott Welsh II case)

Mar 8-9   3,500 Marines land to protect Da Nang air base

Mar 9?   First attempt to march from Selma to Montgomery (turned back)

Mar   Dylan: Bringing It All Back Home (all rock) with Mr. Tambourine Man

Beatles: Eight Days a Week hit [was this in March?]

Mar 16   Quaker Alice Herz, 82, immolates self in Detroit in protest of the Vietnam war

Police break-up demonstration of 600 in Montgomery, Alabama

Mar 17   1,600 demonstrate at Montgomery, Alabama courthouse

Mar 18   Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov makes the first space walk during the Voskhod II mission

  MLK: Alabama march (Selma to Montgomery capital 25,000)  
Mar 24   ?SDS organizes first Vietnam War teach-in: University of Michigan (all night) 500 expected, 3000 come

Mar 28   MLK on television calls for boycott of Alabama

28? Dylan to England (tour filmed for movie: "Don't Look Back") [to April, at least]

March   Sen. Frank Church & George McGovern come out against the war

spring   Beatles John & George spiked with LSD

Apr 2   Kesey busted for mj first time

Apr 5   Alpert & Metzner at Vanguard Theater, Greenwich Village

Apr 17   SDS leads first anti-Vietnam war march in Washington: 25,000 `March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam' - I.F. Stone & Sen. Ernest Gruening of Alaska speak, Phil Ochs, Judy Collins, Joan Baez / 20,000 (+ Bread & Puppet Theater)

April   25,000 American troops in Vietnam (note: number of marchers almost equal to number of troops)

April 30 Life magazine: first photo series of development of a fetus

Spring   Albin House concerts [explain xx]

May 3   Drop City commune founded, ?in New Mexico? on Interstate Hwy 125 into Colorado

May 6   First combat units (two Marine divisions) sent to Vietnam


Beatles: A Ticket to Ride hit

UC Berkeley: Vietnam Day & teach-ins at many other colleges

Los Angeles Free Press starts weekly publication (by Art Kunkin);
Ron Cobb's cartoons often included

(the Mime Troupe)

May 17   National Teach-in broadcast over radio from Wash. D.C.

May 26   Riverside County salmonella crisis causes new look at water supplies in the US [Future Water p. 55]


(big drought in NY)
  Boomers born in 1947 turn 18 & graduate high school

Red Dog Saloon, Charlatans at Virginia City

First psychedlic light shows by Bill Ham

Dylan's Like A Rolling Stone single released (and meets The Band)

June 3-7

  Gemini 4: Edward White takes first US space walk.

June 11   Queen awards Beatles the MBE

First "Happening": Wholly Communion, with Ginsberg, Ferlinghetti, Corso & English poets, Royal Albert Hall, London

June 12   Ky heads new military regime in South Vietnam (Ky bio xxx)


[Israel xx]
  Beatles touring again (to September) - Shea Stadium sold out

Byrds: Mr. Tambourine Man hit June 26

Chet Helms in San Francisco starts bumming around with a bunch of musicians in the basement ballroom of 1090 Page Street: "Part of my illusion was that if I would hang out with musicians it would rub off." The jam sessions, glowing with the film stock avant-garde director Bruce Conner projected onto the walls, began attracting people. Soon over the 300 the space could hold, all with weed and wine, and most underage. Helms tried to discourage by charging 50 cents; that move filled the place to capacity. The jammers who could actually play banded into Big Brother and the Holding Company and Helms became their manager. [SF Bay Guardian Aug 13, 1997]
In the summer of 1965, Manzarek runs into Morrison on the sands of Venice beach. Morrison mentions that he has written a couple of songs; he sings them for Ray, and Manzarek is overwhelmed by the potential for their artistic collaboration. “Jim, man, with your words and my keyboards-there’s nobody doing this. What we’re gonna do, nobody on the planet is doing. The music, our music, is called.. psychedelic.”

”In that year we had an intense visitation of energy. That year lasted from the summer of 1965 to July 3, 1971.”
when? LBJ passing Medicare, Voting Rights, National Foundation on the Arts & Humanities +
Sept: Department of Housing and Urban Development

Baez/Sandperl Institute for the Study of Nonviolence (Carmel): first students


First Provo manifesto appears in Amsterdam

National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam formed; attempts to stop troop trains in Berkeley & Emeryville

SDS starts ERAP in West Oakland

LBJ announces doubling of the draft from 17,000 to35,000 a month, and sending of 50,000 more troops to Vietnam

July 25   Bob Dylan plays new material on electric guitar backed by Paul Butterfield Blues Band and gets booed at Newport Folk Fest (and wearing London mod)

Aug 6   LBJ signs Voting Rights Act, which has enforcement capabilities

Aug   Beatles: Help! released

Dylan: Highway 61 Revisited

Eve of Destruction released, goes to top of charts; within 5 weeks (fastest rising song in rock history) ("you're old enough to kill, but not for votin'")

Joan Baez's first hit: There But For Fortune

Kesey meets Hunter Thompson who introduces the Hells Angels to the Merry Pranksters; Ginsberg & Alpert are at the party

  Watts uprising, Los Angeles

Aug 13   Marty Balin opens Matrix: Jefferson Airplane

+ Merry Prankster party at La Honda: Owsley meets Kesey

Aug 15   Aug 15 - Beatles at Shea Stadium, NY: 55,000/60,000 screaming girls
kicks off: Beatles second tour of US - Aug 15 -Sept 15

Aug 26   Last day getting married could improve your draft status

Aug 29 Aug 31   Beatles Hollywood Bowl, Los Angeles
Beatles at the Cow Palace, San Francisco

Aug 31   LBJ signs law amending Selective Service Act to make draft card burning a federal offense

    Summer (Sept 8?) National Farm Workers Association joins Delano grape walkout by 800 AFL-CIO pickers; within a week, 2000 pickers (led by Cesar Chavez) strike in two counties (33 growers, one quarter of the table grape industry) (by 65: 1700 member families)


On to The High Sixties: Hippies in the Haight and Vietnam War Protests 1965-1966